Wuthering Heights 1847 Emily Bronte 1818-1848 Emily Bronte 1818-1848 Born in northern England; grew up near the
Yorkshire moors Never had a career, never married, never left her home (isolated from society) One of six children; sister Charlotte Bronte wrote the famous novel Jane Eyre Her mother died when she was only three She was an intensely private person Published Wuthering Heights in 1846
Romanticism Stressed the importance of feeling rather than thinking Emphasis on the naturalthe darker aspects of existence, especially human nature Focus on romantic attraction and strong emotions The dark hero- the protagonist who embodies the passionate, brooding, possibly evil nature
The Victorian Novel The Victorian Period is named after Queen Victoria It was a time when women were expected to be prim and completely centered on domestic life Romanticism was a popular movement at the time (novels characterized by gothic elements such as haunted mansions and twisted love
stories) Literary Elements and Techniques Structure: The first half of the novel tells the story of Catherine Earnshaw, Heathcliff, and Edgar Linton. The second half mirrors the first by describing the actions of the children of the characters in the first half (Cathy Linton, Linton
Heathcliff, and Hareton Earnshaw). Symbols: Wuthering Heights and Thrushcross Grange Foreshadowing: the use of ghosts Themes Catherine and Heathcliffs passion for one another seems to be the center of Wuthering Heights.
It is stronger and more lasting than any other emotion displayed in the novel, and that it is the source of most of the major conflicts that structure the novels plot. The book is actually structured around two parallel love stories, the first half of the novel centering on the love between Catherine and Heathcliff,
while the less dramatic second half features the developing love between young Catherine and Hareton. In contrast to the first, the latter tale ends happily, restoring peace and order to Wuthering Heights and Thrushcross Grange. The differences between the two love stories contribute to the readers understanding of
why each ends the way it does. Catherine and Heathcliffs love is based on their shared perception that they are identical. Catherine declares, famously, I am Heathcliff, while Heathcliff, upon Catherines death, wails that he cannot live without his soul, meaning Catherine.
The two do not kiss in dark corners or arrange secret dating, as adulterers do.. Given that Catherine and Heathcliffs love is based upon their refusal to change over time. The disastrous problems of their generation are overcome not by some climactic (causing climax) reversal, but simply by the inexorable passage of time,
and the rise of a new and distinct generation. Ultimately, Wuthering Heights presents a vision of life as a process of change, and celebrates this process over and against the romantic intensity of its principal characters. Gothic Elements
The novel includes Gothic elements, with the haunting sequences Heathcliff very obscure, mysterious, nobody knows where he comes from and how he gets rich. Architectonic Structure The novel has a classic pattern which is recurrent in litearture since Greek tragedy
BASED ON Harmony Destruction of Harmony Restoration of Harmony The Precariousness of Social Class As members of the gentry, the Earnshaws and the Lintons occupy a somewhat precarious place within the hierarchy of late
eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century British society. Point of View (the perspective from which a story is told) Events in Wuthering Heights are told from several different points of view The novel opens and closes from the point of view of Mr. Lockwood
The next narrator of the story is Mrs. Ellen (Nelly) Dean; her point of view is closer to the story itself than Lockwoods Embedded within the narration of Lockwood and Nelly are points when characters such as Isabella Linton and Cathy Linton speak for themselves. The reader must ultimately decide what he/she thinks about each character because of the varying points of view
At the top of British society was ? the royalty, followed by ? the aristocracy, then by ? the gentry, and then by ? the lower classes, who made up the vast majority of the
population. THE GENTRY The gentry held a very fragile social position even if they had servants and often large estates. They didnt have TITLES like the aristocrats. A man might see himself as a gentleman
but find, that his neighbours did not share this view A discussion of whether or not a man was really a gentleman would consider such questions as: how much land he owned, how many tenants and servants he had, how he spoke,
whether he kept horses and a carriage, and whether his money came from land or trade. Catherines decision to marry Edgar so that she will be the greatest woman of the neighborhood is only the most obvious example.
The Lintons The Lintons are relatively firm in their gentry status but nonetheless take great pains to prove this status through their behaviors. The Earnshaws The Earnshaws, on the other hand, rest on much shakier ground socially.
They do not have a carriage, they have less land, and their house resembles that of a homely, northern farmer and not that of a gentleman. Motifs Doubles Bront organizes her novel by arranging its
elements - characters, places, and themes into pairs. Catherine and Heathcliff They are closely matched in many ways, and see themselves as identical. Catherine and young Catherine are both remarkably similar and strikingly different. The two houses, Wuthering Heights and
Thrushcross Grange, represent opposing worlds and values. Heathcliff He is mysterious (dark skin, curly hair almost like a foreigner. Hes the classic outsider Wild manners
Earthy sensibility Heathcliff
In contact with elements Hes passionate He has sexual power of attraction. Hes devilish but He has an enormous capacity to love and be loved Symbols Symbols are objects, characters, figures, or
colors used to represent abstract ideas or concepts Moors Wide, wild expanses, high but somewhat soggy, and thus infertile. Moorland cannot be cultivated, and its uniformity makes navigation difficult. The moors serve very well as symbols of the wild
threat posed by nature. As the setting for the beginnings of Catherine and Heathcliffs bond (the two play on the moors during childhood), the moorland transfers its symbolic associations onto the love affair Ghosts Ghosts appear throughout Wuthering Heights, as they do in most other works of Gothic fiction.
Bront always presents them in such a way that whether they really exist remains ambiguous. Whether or not the ghosts are real, they symbolize the manifestation of the past within the present, and the way memory stays with people, permeating their day-to-day lives. The Conflict between Nature and Culture
In Wuthering Heights, Bront constantly plays nature and culture against each other. Nature is represented by the Earnshaw family, and by Catherine and Heathcliff in particular. These characters are governed by their passions, not by reflection or ideals of civility.
Correspondingly, the house where they live Wuthering Heights comes to symbolize a similar wildness. On the other hand, Thrushcross Grange and the Linton family represent culture, refinement, convention, and cultivation.
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