What is Cross Border Higher Education? - World Bank

What is Cross Border Higher Education? - World Bank

Cross Border Higher Education: India's Response for A Regional Conference on Strategic Choices for Higher Education Reform December 3-5, 2007 organized by Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia & the World Bank Asha Gupta Director, Directorate of Hindi Medium Implementation University of Delhi What is Cross Border Higher Education? According to the Global Education Digest (2006), students mobility surged from 1.75 to 2.5 million during 1999-2004, a rise of 40%. Cross border higher education is in vogue these days. By CBHE we imply higher education that takes place in situations where teachers, students, programmes, institutions/providers or course materials cross national jurisdictional borders. It may include higher education by public/private and not-for profit/for profit providers. Though small in scale, it has bigger impact than for-profit higher education. It can take various forms ranging from face to face higher education to e-learning. Though the term cross-border is used interchangeably with global, international, borderless, transnational or multinational, it is not correct to do so. In fact, the term cross-border implies an awareness and recognition of national borders and all that means in terms of political, social and cultural specific norms and realities found within. One can have access to international higher education without crossing the borders. Internationalization of higher education implies integration of international, intercultural and/or global dimension into the goals, functions and delivery of higher education. By CBHE, we usually imply students following a course or programme of study that has been produced, and maintained, in a country different from ones country of residence. Source: John Daniel, Asha Kanwar and Stamenka Uvalic-Trumbic A Tectonic Shift in Global Higher Education. Change. July /August 2006. Modes of CBHE Supply Mode 1: Cross-border delivery: Mode 2: Consumption abroad: With technological innovations it is now possible to deliver higher education and vocational skills on anytime, anywhere basis. We find 50% of working adults continuing higher education

under life long learning to keep abreast with latest knowledge. For the first time in history, human mind has become direct source of wealth creation. E-learning, has made higher education accessible, equitable, affordable, relevant and self-paced. It does not require any physical movement of the learner. Many foreign and for-profit private HEIs are in fray as it has become a lucrative business. CBHE can take place when we find the natural presence of teachers and visiting faculty from abroad. In Malaysia, Japan and China, the focus is more on having qualified faculty from foreign universities instead of sending their students abroad in large numbers. The idea is to stop brain drain and save foreign exchange. Indian students, for instance, spend US $4 billion every year for living expenses and education abroad. With this amount many high quality institutes can be opened in India itself. China, for instance, has started 1200 private universities in last 5 years. Even American students are now flocking to China as it is cost effective and culturally enriching. Mode 3: Commercial presence: Mode 4: Movement of natural persons: The GATS is more concerned about cross border supply of higher education and commercial presence than traditional forms of academic exchanges. Whereas tradition CBHE has been small, research and development focused, grant based, the modern CBHE has been more career oriented, entrepreneurial, competitive, revenue generating and profit-making. Higher education not only leads to personal growth and economic development, it has become a 3-4 trillion dollar business in itself, next to defense in the US It can take place through franchising, twinning or launching of branch campuses at the local level. In 34 countries about 20% students go abroad in pursuit of higher education and professional training. It is seen as consumption of higher education abroad. Universities today are required to function like any other business enterprise and promote the consumption of higher education. About 120,000 students leave India every year for higher

education and professional training. Some go for exposure, others go with a definite motive to work abroad. It is difficult to retain qualified faculty in India itself if they find better job prospects abroad. Why Cross Border Higher Education? With massification of higher education, we find sudden escalation in the demand for higher education that cannot be met by most governments on their own. CBHE is the natural choice. The estimates are that by 2020 there will be 165 billion people seeking higher education, including 7.2 billion international students. About 60% of demand is likely to come from India and China, the two most populous states, emerging economies and world power in making. In the wake of knowledge-based and technology-driven economies, it is necessary to upgrade ones skills constantly. CBHE helps in capacity building, human resource development, practical and relevant education, professional training, broadening ones outlook, acceptance of multiculturalism, ethnic or linguistic diversities, etc. It can be seen both as a political strategy and economic device towards educational internationalism and cooperation. The media too is found playing a proactive role in promoting the consumption of higher education by spreading/strengthening the myth that the more you learn the more you earn! The very purpose of CBHE has changed from pursuit of knowledge to gaining job-oriented skills. Source: Asha Gupta. Education in the 21st Century: Looking Beyond University. (forthcoming, Shipra, 2008, New Delhi). Whither Higher Education in India?

India is more than a state and almost like a continent. We find development & underdevelopment juxtapositioned. It has the credit of running the 3rd largest higher education system after China and US. It has 348 including 62 deemed to be universities, 17973 colleges, 11 centers for open learning, 11.8 million students and 0.5 million teachers (2006-07). India has inherited the British system of affiliation. Only the universities have degree granting power. About 70% of higher education institutions are privately managed. They are affiliated to public universities or open learning centers. There are only 10 private universities. India has the advantage of 350 million middle class willing to invest into quality higher education. It has demographic advantage of having 60% of its population below the age of 25. Only 8-10% of adults are in continuing education. India has robust economic growth at the rate of 9%. About 60% contribution comes from the service sector India has great potential of becoming a hub for Knowledge Process Outsourcing (KPO), especially in leagl services, data analysis, animation and design, business and market research, biotechnological and intellectual property research The economic growth is led by private sector that is willing to invest into higher education and professional training. India spends only 0.68% of its GDP on higher education. Only 13% of the youth have access to higher education. Indias Response to Cross Border Higher Education India became more outward looking, globally connected and innovation-driven after economic liberalization in July 1991.

The new economic policy has a definite bearing on higher education in India though it has a record of CBHE as early as 4 th and 5th century when scholars from far off places flocked to Nalanda and Taxila in quest of knowledge for the sake of knowledge and cultural diversity. Shanti Niketan, established in 1929, attracted many scholars from abroad. Its founder Rabindra Nath Tagore used to assert that India has an obligation to offer the hospitality of her best culture and it has the right to accept from others their best. Today, India is sending a large number of students abroad in pursuit of higher education and professional training, at the exorbitant costs of US $4 billion per annum. Indian government is now willing to allow 100% FDI in higher education in India. Most of the CBHE in India falls in the category of Mode 3 (commercial presence) or Mode 1 (higher education through distance learning). 5% seats are now reserved for foreign students. Joint degrees and collaborative programmes are becoming more popular. Manipal Academy has collaboration with Malaysian Medical College at Maleka, BITS Pilani has launched a business school in Dubai and Wharton has a management programme in Hyderabad, IIT with French collaboration in Singapore. India has the advantage of 350 million people having English language skills (UK has 60, US 250 and China 200 million). India has the credit of providing 3rd largest pool of skilled personnel worldwide. It is one of the five telecom giants and has 4 th biggest economy in terms of Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) despite 13% access to higher education. We find national mind in favour of CBHE but national heart against it. It applies to globalization, economic liberalization and privatization as well. It is feared that CBHE can adversely affect national sovereignty and boost hegemony of the West and English language. In the absence of proper regulatory regime, certain unscrupulous foreign institutions can take undue advantage of unmet demand in India by operating fly by night institutions of low caliber or by offering degrees/diplomas not even recognized in their own countries. Students and their families can be easily duped and exploited by full page advertisements in local and national dailies. Such institutions may also be found lacking in terms of linguistic, ethnic, gender, religious, regional or cultural sensitivities. India is now planning to develop ways and means for dealing with this situation. Pros and Cons of CBHE Leads to intellectual enrichment, broadening of cultural outlook, and forging of meaningful international ties. Can be useful in managing globalization and enhancing human capital. Creates scope for business-academia interface and exposure to work scenario in future. Leads to entrepreneurship-hallmark of knowledge based

and technology driven economy. Being a young nation, a sizeable demand for Higher education is likely to come from India itself. It is rich both in terms of quality as well as quantity as far as human resource is concerned. Helps in brain circulation and brain gain rather than brain drain. Enhances professional skills through diversity, critical thinking and innovation. Strengthens communication skills through group discussions and interactive sessions in multi-cultural and multi-lingual settings. Exposes to latest educational technology and practical insights. India can hope to improve its share in the business of higher education through CBHE by adopting supportive policies and removing some of the undue apprehensions and bottlenecks. Indian psyche is against commercialization of education. It considers imparting education as a noble task. No distinction is made between profit and profiteering',' self-interest and selfish interest. CBHE is seen as detrimental to national interests due to huge disparities in exports and imports of higher education. More Indians go abroad at exorbitant costs, whereas India can provide quality education that can also be cost effective. Indians feel that India should become an educational hub itself as it is multi-cultural and has the advantage of English as medium of instruction. Indians are averse to exploitation and low quality higher education by foreign providers.

They are critical of fly by night operations by dubious stakeholders. India is known for adopting cautious approach .It saved itself from Asian Crisis. Many Indians feel that CBHE is not easily accessible, affordable and available to the vast majorities. It can only widen the already prevailing chasm in terms of socio-economic, regional, cultural or gender perspectives. Regional Disparities in India in Terms of CBHE Few select states Population (in million)* HEIs with foreign collaboration Countries involved Courses offered (Fashion Tech=FT; Mass Commun=MC; Hotel Mgt=HM; BA/BSc=BB; B.Tech/M/Tech/Medical=BM) Andhra Pradesh 66.51 18 UK (7), USA (11) MBA(7), FT(1), HM(8), BM(2) Delhi 9.42 19 UK (13), USA (5), Europe (1) MBA(11), FT(2), HM(2), BM(4)

Goa 1.27 02 USA (2) HM(2) Gujarat 41.31 04 UK (2), USA (2) MBA(1), MC(1), HM(2) Haryana 16.46 06 UK (4), USA (2) MBA(2), HM(1), BB(1), BM(2) Karnataka 44.98 13 UK (7), USA (6) MBA(8), HM(3), BM(2) Kerala 29.10 03 USA (3)

HM(3), Madhya Pradesh 66.18 03 UK (1), USA (1), Switzerland (1) MBA(2), HM(1) Maharashtra 78.94 20 Uk (7), USA (11), Canada (2) MBA(5), FT(1), HM(11), BB(1), BM(2) Rajasthan 44.01 01 USA (1) HM(1) Tamil Nadu 55.86 23 UK (6), USA (16), France (1) MBA(4), MC(2), HM(9), BB(3), BM(5) Uttar Pradesh

139.11 04 UK (1), USA (3) MBA(1), HM(2), BM(1) West Bengal 68.08 15 UK (11), USA (3), Australia (1) MBA(4), HM(10), BM(1) 131 UK (59), USA (66), Canada (2), Australia (1), Switzerland (1), France (1), Europe (1) MBA(45), FT(4), MC(3), HM(55), BB(5), BM(19) Total *As on October 10, 2004 Disincentives for Foreign Stakeholders for Starting Branch Campuses in India Large endowments expected of foreign universities Remittances/profits not allowed Government plans to impose social responsibility even on foreign universities, such as, free ships, reservation, etc. Too many regulations, very little support No clear legal direction Frequent judicial interventions Too much politics, less business Types of Foreign Collaborations in India

Foreign HEIs can be diversified into 4 categories on the basis of a survey carried out by National Institute of Educational Planning and Administration (now NUEPA) in 2004: 1. Twinning arrangements It is the most popular form of collaboration between Indian and foreign universities, including private HEIs. For instance, Manipal Academy has collaboration with Maleka in Malaysia, AMITY Business School with University of Westminster UK, and Purdue University in US. 2. Franchise arrangements It can take place when foreign institutions enter into negotiations with existing Indian universities, including the private or deemed to be universities to teach their curriculum under the supervision of foreign institutions. As of today, only 2 foreign institutions are allowed to have franchise in India. 3. Collaboration through distance education The Academy for Management Excellence (ACME) in Chennai offers MBA via distance learning in association with UK Open University. 4. Branch campuses In the absence of national legislation (a bill still pending before Parliament), branch campuses are not allowed in India. According to an AICTE survey, 104 institutions in India have collaborated with foreign universities without AICTEs approval. Rise of For-Profit Private

In ancient India it was believed that Saraswati (the Goddess of Learning) cannot co-exist with Lakshmi (the Goddess of Wealth). The brahmins (the learned) were accorded higher social status than the kshatriyas (the warriors), vaishyas (the commercial class) and the shudras (manual workers). Imparting knowledge was seen as a noble task and profit-seeking was considered demeaning. Though profit-seeking is still illegal and a taboo, institutions, such as, National Institute of Information Technology (NIIT) and APTECH (a computer and online training courseware) are making huge profits. Aptech systems revenue was in excess of Rs. 9226.70 million (208.75 million USD) in 2006 and is listed on the Bombay Stock Exchange and National Stock Exchange, India. NIIT is also doing remarkably well on the stock market. In 2006-07, its profit scaled up by 22%. It has a tie up with Intel Corporation for developing a multi-core training curriculum. APTECH and NIIT are registered with the Ministry of Trade and not with the Ministry of Human Resource Development. They have branches in more than 35 countries ranging from US to Africa. NIIT was set up in 1981 as a computer training institution. Today it has become a leading provider of IT services worldwide. They have devised special curriculum to meet the short-term and long-term demands of the knowledge-based and technology-driven economy. It blends classroom teaching with on-line learning. They are highly practical. Today they enjoy full-fledged status of deemed to be university. Deemed to be University: A Short Cut? Under Section 3 of the UGC Act of 2000, this status can be conferred to those post-secondary institutions, including private and foreign collaboration, which are either: Engaged in teaching programme and research in chosen fields of specialization, which are innovative, and of very high academic standards at the Masters (or equivalent) and/or research levels. It should have a greater interface with society through extra mural, extension and field action related programmes. Making in its area of specialization, distinct contribution to the objectives of the university education system through innovative programmes and on being recognized as a university capable of further enriching the university system as well as strengthening teaching and research in the institutions and particularly in its area of specialization. Competent to undertake application-oriented programmes in emerging areas, which are

relevant and useful to various development sectors and society in general. Institution should have the necessary viability and a management capable of contributing to the university ideas and traditions. Source: www.ugc.ac..in Role of Private Sector in Enhancing Access to Higher Education (2004) Country in Private Australia New Zealand Japan South Korea Brazil Philippines Russian Federation Malaysia India USA Macao, China UK South Africa Indonesia Source: % of Enrolment from abroad 77

68 31 24 100 Receives abroad Sends 1 166,954(16.6%) 6,434 (0.5%) 7 26,359(13.5%) 6,513 (2.4%) 117,903 (2.7%) 60,424 (0.8%) 81 7,843 (0.2%) 1,339 (0.1%) 1,260 (-) 19,619 (0.1%) 66 4,744 (0.2%) 6,974 (0.1%) 11 75,786 (0.9%) 34,473 (0.3%) 32 27,731 (4.4%) 40,884 (1.9%) 7,738 (0.1%) 123,559 (0.1%) 572,509 (3.4%) 41,181 (0.2%) 67 14,627(58.9%) 853 (2.4%) 300,056(13.4%) 23,542 (0.6%) 9 (2001) 49,979 (7.0%) 5,619 (0.1%) 61 ----31,687 (0.1%)

UNESCO Institute for Statistics on Global Education Digest 2006:132-37. Figures in bracket are from PROPHE. What Needs to be Done? Be prepared for the diversity of cross border providers. It can take various forms, such as franchise, branch campus, study centers, twinning, joint or double degree, validation, articulation by way of credit transfers, e-learning,etc. It is important to assure quality of higher education provided instead of putting barriers. Students should have access to all relevant information and documents. It is important to develop regional network to check undue commercialization, fake universities, lower standards or high fees. It is important to be sensitive to local culture, languages and needs as providers or receivers of CBHE services. Strengthen the regulatory framework by roping in both for-profit and non-profit private/ community colleges. Quality without equity or access has no meaning in a democratic set up. The purpose of quality should be to promote innovation and creativity rather than enforcing uniformity, discipline or central control in a federal set up. There can be a separate set up for domestic and foreign providers. Assessment and accreditation can be mandatory or voluntary. Cross border higher education should be seen as a contribution towards human, social, cultural, scientific and economic development. There should be proper guidelines for all the stakeholders and providers for short-term and long-term partnerships in mutual interest. A Case for the Foreign Universities Bill The Parliamentary Standing Committee on Human Resource Development has shown support towards collaborations with foreign universities in its 172nd report (May 22 , 2006). The idea is to expand equity, relevance, quality, governance and funding. The Committee acknowledged the lack of database on foreign HEIs already functioning in India. Most of the existing 150 foreign HEIs are supposed to be functioning illegally. While many foreign institutions, including, Harvard, Yale, Stanford, Carnegie Mellon and Purdue universities are keen to come to India and need simpler rules. The foreign universities/stakeholders, such as, Sylvania Lauriat, are turning away from India due to lack of clear guidelines and ambiguity in regulatory environment. The NAAC, responsible for assessment and accreditation of HEIs in India has not been able to

evolve quality assurance mechanisms for foreign higher education institutions. Fiscal and other incentives can work better than rigid adherence to rules and regulations. Like the telecom sector, higher education can also be de-regularized in public interest. India needs innovative and creative solution as only 15% of its trained engineers are employable in global markets, only 13% of its youth have access to higher education including polytechnics, private and part-time education and 93% of its workforce remains in unorganized sector. It needs blending of national and foreign, academic and vocational, face to face and distance, job oriented and lifelong learning in various permutations and combinations. Important Provisions of the Pending Bill Foreign Educational institutions (Regulation and Operation, Maintenance of Quality and Prevention of Commercialization) Bill was to be introduced in the Rajya Sabha in May 2007. Due to resistance from the Left, it could not be introduced. The main highlights were: Section 2(e) defined FEI as an institution established or incorporated outside the territory of India which has been offering educational services in India or proposes to offer courses leading to award of degrees or diplomas through conventional method in the territory of India independently or in collaboration, partnership or in a twinning arrangement with any educational institution situated in India. Section 2(o) defined twinning arrangement as a programme whereby students enrolled with the FEI complete their study partly in any other educational institution situated outside India. Section 3(1) held no FEI shall admit students, levy or collect any fee from a student in the territory of India for ant course of study leading to the award of a degree or a diploma, by whatever name called, unless such institution has been notified by the central government as an institution deemed to be university under Section 3 of the University Grants Commission Act of 1956. Once a FEI is declared a deemed to be university, it will be known as Foreign Education Provider (FEP) under Section 2(f). No FEP can start functioning in India unless accorded Deemed to be University status first. Section 3 clearly stipulated that the provisions of this Act would apply only if a FEI wants to start an educational institution independently. It would not apply in case joint arrangement are made with any recognized institution. The prime object of this Act is to stop unscrupulous private higher education institutions entering into collaboration with the FEIs just to make huge profits by commercialization of higher education and also to stop FEIs from duping the students in India by making false propaganda. Section 5(1) made provision for assuring quality regarding the curriculum methods of teaching and faculty offered by a FEP comparable to those available in the country of its origin. Section 5(2) prohibited a FEP from offering a course adversely affecting the sovereignty and integrity of India or hurting the cultural and linguistic sensitivities of people of India. Section 5(3) made it mandatory for a FEP for depositing 25% of the income into the corpus fund and the rest for the development of the HEI in India. No restriction was provided for the repatriation of surplus in revenue generated in India by way of fee collection.

Under Section 7, a provision was made that if a FEP violated any provision of this Act, the UGC Act or any other Act in force in India having bearing on maintenance of standards , then its status as Deemed to be University could be cancelled and alternate arrangements made for the students. A provision was made under Section 9(1) to exempt certain FEIs from this Act provided they had high reputation and standing and were wiling to invest at least 51% of the total capital expenditure required for the institute and gave an assurance that no part of the surplus revenue generated in India would be invested for any other purpose except for the growth and development of the HIE in India. This provision gave overriding powers to Central Government, its Advisory Body, UGC, AICTE and MCI. Source: Vijender Sharma FEI Bill: Crass Commercialization of Higher Education. Peoples Democracy. May 27, 2007. Existing Policy vs. Desired Policy At present, the entry of foreign universities in India is resisted as there is no policy guidelines on foreign universities despite the craze for foreign degrees by the affluent middle class. Foreign education is seen as market-driven and polemic and not substantial for meeting the challenges offered by life. Indian political economy is not yet ready to grant full autonomy to foreign providers as far as syllabus, faculty, fee structure and degree granting powers are concerned. The influx of foreign private and for-profit HEIs, such as, Phoenix University run by Apollo Group, is seen as private good and contrary to national interest and public good. The politics of coalition does not allow the government to take either swift decisions or strong measures. Though legally privatization and for-profit higher education is not allowed, the ground realties favour them. India needs a proper legislation on foreign universities.

It is important to lay down clear guidelines to resolve the dilemmas and gaps between theory and practice. Profiteering should not be confused with marginal profit-making nor should self-interest be selfish interest. It is important to provide the necessary incentives to higher education providers and stakeholders instead of regulating them too much. In the era of massification and market economy, higher education cannot be imparted as charity. Necessary quality assurance mechanisms can be developed for HEIs keeping in mind the need for academic freedom and accountability instead of avoiding foreign institutions. It is no longer sustainable to allow only foreign universities of repute to enter India as there cannot be any consensus or fixed parameters to judge quality or measure repute. It makes sense to let foreign HEIs to collaborate with private HEIs as long as they are able to deliver quality education and market-oriented skills. A Quick Look at the UK Scenario In 2006-07, 60 UK HEIs offered programmes through Indian partners to approximately 5000 students at undergraduate and postgraduate level. Twinning and dual degrees are more popular than franchising and branch campuses. Branch campuses are illegal to date. In 2007, there were more than 23000 students from India in the UK (5 fold increase in less than a decade).

The number of student visas issued to self-financed students from India increased from mere 4000 in 1999 to about 19000 in 2006, contributing 300 million Pound to the UK economy. To a survey by New York based McKinsey, the middle class in India with annual disposable income of US $4,382 to $21,890 almost doubled to 200 million in last decade. According to the same survey, 55% of the population in India has an annual household income of less than US $1,970 or about US $5.40 a day. India sends second largest number of students to UK. 14 UK universities have full-time offices in India. Source: http://www.international.ac.uk/country_profiles November 15, 2007. Risks Involved Though cross border higher education has become acceptable in the present scenario, to promote business and research interests, there are many risks involved. Reputation of a country is at stake if it fails to deliver quality product. Thats why a lot of attention is paid to quality control by a tiny country but a big exporter of higher education, like Australia. UK has also suffered some damage for lack of desired quality of the educational programmes run by it in Dubai and other Middle East countries. Problems may occur if the faculty and administrative staff involved is not properly equipped or trained to devise and deliver collaborative learning and assessment overseas. Governments may not be yet ready with proper regulatory framework and cross border higher education may be seen as an assault on national sovereignty by their opponents. If the government is unable to meet the sudden surge in demand at the national level, it may have to face flight of capital and brain drain. Moreover, it needs to assure quality of higher education provided by foreign universities for which it might be ill-equipped.

Conditions Laid Down by AICTE All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) was set up in 1945 for engineering and technological education in India. It became a statutory body in 1987 under Parliament of India Act. It is responsible for planning, coordination, promotion, regulation and maintenance of technical education, its norms and standards. Technical education involves engineering, architecture, town planning, management, pharmacy, hotel management and catering, applied arts and crafts, etc. It is responsible for the approval of private / foreign institutions, new courses and expansion. Its motto is to provide world class technical education that is both accessible and affordable. Technical education has grown from 46 engineering colleges and 3 pharmacy institutions in 1947, 8 management programmes in 1962, 146 MCA programmes in 1997 to 1559 engineering colleges and 602 pharmacy institutions, 1147 MBA programmes, 1024 MCA programmes and 110 School of Architect in 2006. There are many short-term and long-term diploma now available with the help of private, NGOs, foreign and open learning.

AICTE established the National Board of Accreditation (NBA) in 1994 to evaluate the quality of programmes offered by technical institutions in India. NBA has evolved a 3-step process for assessment and accreditation at submission, validation and recommendation stage. AICTE notified regulations for foreign collaboration for the first time in May 2005 in order to safeguard the interests of the students, on the one hand, and ensure uniform maintenance of norms and standards, on the other. It is necessary for foreign institution to apply on prescribed format with requisite fee and a certificate from their own embassy saying that the institution is accredited in its home country along with a detailed project report. The Standing Committee of Advisers recommends a case for registration under the UGC Act. It is bound by UGC and AICTE rules from time to time. An MoU may be signed between AICTE and EQA (External Quality Assurance Agency) for regulating quality. Details on AICTE regulations can be retrieved from its website www.aicte.ernet.in Vedanta University An Amalgam of Public, Private & Foreign Anil Agarwal, a business tycoon from metals and mining company, entered into collaboration with Orissa Government to set up Vedanta University on 8,000 acre land. Enrolment for 100,000 students, comprising national and international, from various

disciplines will start in 2008. The idea is to have a university town in Orissa on the pattern of Silicon Valley. Anil Agarwal donated US $1 billion as endowment. His vision is that Vedanta should emulate American Universities with programmes in liberal art, science, engineering, medicine, law, business and performing art. Ayers Saint Gross, responsible for planning the architect for John Hopkins, Duke, Virginia and Carnegie Mellon, is engaged for Vedanta Univ. Dr. Werner Kreuz, Managing Director of A. T. Kearney, Germany, has been engaged as a consultant for handling this project. The mission of this university is to provide world class, multi-disciplinary and practical education to Indian and foreign students on no profit basis. There cannot be any single or predetermined path for cross border higher education in India but multiple pathways. It would be in the interest of India to forge alliances with neighbouring countries to check western hegemony. It can learn a great deal from Malaysian experiences as far as regulation of cross border higher education is concerned. Thank you Dr Asha Gupta Director, Directorate of Hindi Medium Implementation University of Delhi, India. E-mail: [email protected]

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