Using Thinking Skills with the PISA Reading Literacy Framework
Linking GCSE, Thinking Skills and the PISA Reading Literacy Framework 10 Chwefror 2015 Extract from the PISA
Reading Literacy Framework Cognitively-based theories of reading literacy emphasise the interactive nature of reading and the constructive nature of comprehension, in the print medium (Binkley & Linnakyl, 1997; Bruner, 1990; Dole, Duffy, Roehler, &
Pearson, 1991) and to an even greater extent in the electronic medium (Fastrez, 2001; Legros & Crinon, 2002; Leu, 2007; Reinking, 1994). The reader generates meaning in response to text by using previous knowledge and a range of text and situational cues that are often socially and culturally derived. While constructing meaning, the reader uses various processes, skills, and strategies to foster,
monitor, and maintain understanding. These processes and strategies are expected to vary with context and purpose as readers interact with multiple continuous and noncontinuous texts both in print and (increasingly) when using digital technologies (Britt & Rouet, 2012). (PISA 2015 pg.9) Reading Literacy Aspects and
Related Tasks Access and Retrieve Retrieving information tasks, which focus the reader on separate pieces of information within the text, are assigned to the access and retrieve
scale. (PISA 2015 pg. 21) Reading Literacy Aspects and Related Tasks Integrate and Interpret Forming a broad understanding and developing an interpretation tasks
focus the reader on relationships within a text. Tasks that focus on the whole text require readers to form a broad understanding; tasks that focus on relationships between parts of the text require
developing an interpretation. The two are grouped together under integrate and
interpret. (PISA 2015 pg. 21) Reading Literacy Aspects and Related Tasks Reflect and Evaluate Tasks addressing the last two aspects, reflecting on the content of a text and reflecting on the
form of a text, are grouped together into a single reflect and evaluate aspect category. Both require the reader to draw primarily on knowledge outside the text and relate it to what is being read. Reflecting on content tasks are concerned with the notional substance of a text; reflecting on form tasks are concerned with its structure or formal features. (PISA 2015 pg. 21)
(PISA 2015 pg. 21) The PISA 2009 definition of reading, continued for 2012 and 2015: Reading literacy is understanding, using,
reflecting on and engaging with written texts, in order to achieve ones goals, to develop ones knowledge and potential, and to participate in society. We are going to focus on the underlined text above
Reading literacy includes a wide range of cognitive competencies, from basic decoding, to knowledge of words, grammar and larger linguistic and textual structures and features, to knowledge about the world. It also includes metacognitive competencies: the awareness of and ability to use a variety of appropriate strategies when processing texts.
Metacognitive competencies are activated when readers think about, monitor and adjust their reading activity for a particular goal. The word using refers to the notions of application and function doing something
with what we read The word understanding is readily connected with reading comprehension Even at the earliest stages, readers draw on symbolic knowledge to decode a text and require a
knowledge of vocabulary to make meaning. Reflecting on is added to understanding and using to emphasise the notion that reading is interactive: readers draw on their own thoughts and experiences when
engaging with a text Thinking Maps Year 9 Ysgol Bryn Elian pupils have been using and producing maps within the units of work we are currently developing and
trialling. They have you used the Thinking Maps along with Concept Maps and the Lotus Diagram. Double Bubble Map Before showing the Thinking Map
examples Using the sticky notes and Thinking Maps provided, consider the following: How would you/have you used them to support the teaching of reading? Finally
For further information and resources: http://www.oecd.org/pisa/pisaproducts/Draft %20PISA%202015%20Reading%20Framework %20.pdf
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