Use Underlining to

Use Underlining to

FREEWRITE MICROTHEME On a piece of paper, with your name & date on it, write 80-100 words on: an event that lasted no more than 5 minutes ... that brought you either pain or sadness OR

pleasure or joy See next slide for example Estimate total word count by counting the number of words on your first line and multiplying that by the number of lines. For example, this essay is 9 x 10 90. [actual count = 96] Martha Bianco 1 2 3 Microtheme #1 4 5 6 7

10/3/08 8 9 I received a phone call from my aunt, saying, Martha, Uncle Alan is dead. What? I responded, in shock. And she went on to explain that he had been sick with some disease for a long time. I had not even had any idea he was sick! But apparently, they had seen this coming, as he had been ill with a lung disease for a very long time. I was so shocked that my aunt said, Martha? Hello? Are you there? I didnt even know how to respond, because I had not known he was ill. Writing 90 Dr. Martha J. Bianco

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 2 Week 2 Grammar: Subjects, Verbs, and Types of Sentences Subjects Grammar Warm Up Activity

SUBJECT AND VERB The verb indicates an action Carolyn speaks Spanish. or state of being Carolyn is Mexican. FOCUS ON THE SUBJECT

The subject tells who or what is doing the action: Carolyn speaks Spanish. or being something Carolyn is Mexican. TO FIND THE SIMPLE SUBJECT . . . Ask who or what is doing or being something. Mikes expertise at the Halo videogame series

was something all of his friends admired. Mikes expertise at the Halo videogame series was something all of his friends admired. COMMON NOUNS AS SUBJECT. . . animals, plants, things, qualities, ideas The dog barks too much. Her petunias almost died.

That table is crowded. Fairness is an important virtue. Happiness can be difficult to achieve. PROPER NOUNS AS SUBJECTS Specific people, places, things, concepts Little Sparky barks too much.

Beautiful Springfield is losing population. When October begins, the air is cool. The girls and John decided to play. PERSONAL PRONOUNS AS SUBJECTS Personal pronouns stand for specific persons or things: The

dog barks too much. It barks too much. Her petunias almost died. They almost died. Beautiful Springfield is losing population. It is losing population. PERSONAL PRONOUNS AS SUBJECT. . . Personal pronouns stand for specific persons or things: John

called the girls. He called the girls. The girls and John decided to play. They decided to play. Anne and I ate lunch. We ate lunch. INDEFINITE PRONOUNS AS SUBJECT. . . Indefinite pronouns stand for general

persons or things: Each of them contributed some money. Everybody Nobody gave their most. thought to call. Somebody arrived late. RELATIVE PRONOUNS AS SUBJECTS Subject form of a relative pronoun stands alone.

Otherwise, its an adjective. This is my friend. These are my friends. This friend is mine. These friends are mine. That is your dog. That Those are your dogs.

dog is yours. yours. Those dogs are QUESTION PRONOUNS AS SUBJECTS Who is my friend? Which is your dog? What are your favorite songs?

Whose is that? SINGLE VS. COMPOUND SIMPLE SUBJECT Single subject My friend brought Compound subject My friend and a present. I have much in common. Jane, Susan, and Maria met for lunch.

THE IMPLIED YOU IN A COMMAND: Read the notes. = (You) Read the notes. Please have a seat. = (You) Please have a seat. SUBJECT-VERB SEPARATION Interrupter (prepositional phrase) may separate subject from verb preposition object of the preposition

inthe student in the back ofa friend of mine on the book on the table at the price at the bookstore for a poem for my friend preposition object of the preposition OBJECT OF PREPOSITION CANT BE SUBJECT The student in the back raised her hand. The student in the back raised her hand. A friend of mine has the same shirt. A friend of mine has the same shirt.

The book on the table belongs to me. The book on the table belongs to me. The price at the bookstore is higher. The price at the bookstore is higher. A poem for my friend is a nice gift. A poem for my friend is a nice gift. FILLER WORDS HERE AND THERE ARE NOT SUBJECTS! There were birds in the tree.

There is a nest in the tree. Here are the birds in their nest. There and Here are never subjects! STOP AND Exercises 1 & 2, p. 44 PRACTICE Verbs

VERB PHRASES Single verb: He led the charge. Verb phrases use helping verbs: is can has did may should (etc.) She He is leading the charge. can drive to work. They

did give to the charity. COMPOUND VERBS ARE JOINED BY CONNECTOR WORDS LIKE AND OR OR He studied or worked all his adult life. She worked for twenty-five years and retired. Elena had immigrated to the U.S. and had raised a family. DONT CONFUSE VERBS WITH VERBALS!

Verbals Gerund look like verbs but arent! = verb + ing: singing, laughing Singing is fun. Infinitive = to + verb: to be, to sing I want to sing. Singing = noun To sing = noun

DONT CONFUSE VERBS WITH VERBALS! Present participle = verb + ing: breaking We listened for breaking glass. Past Breaking = adjective participle = verb + ed, en, etc.: broken We cleaned up the broken glass.

Broken = adjective WORDS LIKE NEVER, NOT, AND HARDLY ARE ADVERBS, NOT VERBS... We never eat dessert before dinner. We never eat dessert before dinner. I do not like lima beans. I do not like lima beans.

They hardly knew Aunt Mary. They hardly knew Aunt Mary. The adverb not often separates a helping verb from the main verb. STOP AND PRACTICE Exercises 3 & 4, p. 47 SUBJECTS MAY FOLLOW VERBS:

Birds were in the tree. There were birds in the tree. There is a nest in the tree. Here are the birds in their nest. There and Here are never subjects! OFTEN COMES BETWEEN PARTS OF VERB PHRASE

Where had the defendant gone on that fateful night? Do you like chocolate? FOR SENTENCE VARIETY AND WRITING STYLE, SUBJECTS MAY COME AFTER VERBS I am innocent! cried the defendant. Quietly into the night go we.

Exercises 5 & 6, p. 48-49 Review 1 & 2, p. 51-53 STOP AND Microtheme: Underline subjects and circle verbs in PRACTICE the first two sentences. Put your name on your paper and turn in! Sentence Types WHAT IS A SENTENCE? A group of words that 1. has a subject + verb 2.

starts with a capital letter ends with a period (.), question mark (?), or exclamation mark (!) 3. 4. makes sense on its own (with no added words) CORRECT SENTENCES OR NOT? WHY? 1. A Starbucks just opened in our neighborhood. 2. did it just open.

3. The manager who asked about parking. 4. A brand-new Starbucks! 5. It did? 6. Time on our hands. 7. The overtired baseball team finished its practice. 8.

While you were sleeping on the couch. 9. The idea you had. 10. Sit. WHAT IS A PHRASE? A group of words either Without With

a subject and/or verb or a subject and verb but makes no sense PHRASES OR COMPLETE SENTENCES? 1. The dog in the back yard continues to bark. 2. The dog, who is in the back yard, barks. 3. John, running down the street. 4.

John ran down the street. 5. The final pages of the book. 6. The supervisor liked what he saw. 7. Hurrying away from the car. 8. About the future. 9. Worries about the future.

10. We worry about the future. WHAT IS A CLAUSE? A group of words that has a subject and a verb WHAT IS AN INDEPENDENT CLAUSE? Independent clause (aka Main Clause): 1.

Has a subject and verb Stands on its own Makes sense by itself 1. 2. Susan began using a spell checker. John used a spell checker, too. WHAT IS A DEPENDENT CLAUSE? Dependent clause (aka Subordinate Clause): 1. Has a subject and verb (or verbal), but

Cannot stand on its own Doesnt makes sense by itself Depends on another group of words to make sense 1. 2. Because she was having trouble with her spelling. Although he was a good speller. INDEPENDENT OR DEPENDENT? 1. While you are waiting. 2. You might want to look at this magazine.

3. The project is really exciting. 4. Although the tasks seem boring. 5. The client rang the bell. 6. Because she wanted faster service. 7. As soon as the mail arrives. 8.

Ill see if the check is there. 9. If you can come. 10. Call me. SIMPLE AND COMPOUND SENTENCES A. Simple sentence Consists of one independent clause: 1. Susan was having trouble with her

spelling. 2. John used a spell checker, too. SIMPLE AND COMPOUND SENTENCES B. Compound sentence Consists of two or more independent clauses: 1. Susan was having trouble with her spelling, so she began to use a spell checker.

2. John was a good speller, but he used a spell checker, too. COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONAS FANBOYS For And Nor But Or Yet So SIMPLE OR COMPOUND? CIRCLE COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS: 1. My boss dictates the memo, and Marlene types it. 2.

We filled out the correct forms. 3. He hasnt called me, nor has he written. 4. He hasnt called nor written. 5. She left work early, for she was not feeling well. 6. She wasnt feeling well when she left work early. 7.

She wasnt feeling well, so she left work early. 8. Our customers can wait in line. 9. They can order over the phone. 10. They can wait in line, or they can order over the phone. COMPLEX SENTENCES A. One or more dependent clauses + one independent clause

1. Because she was having trouble with her spelling, Susan began using a spell checker. 2. Although he was a good speller, John used a spell checker, too. COMPLEX SENTENCES B. Dependent clause beings with a subordinating conjunction. Examples: TIME before after while

when whenever until as soon as as long as CAUSE / EFFECT because since so that in order that CONDITI ON CONTRAST / COMPARE if

unless whether although though as though even though whereas as if PLACE where whereve r COMPLEX SENTENCES? UNDERLINE ANY DEPENDENT CLAUSES & CIRCLE SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS: 1.

Please plan to fill out some forms before you see the doctor. 2. We want to serve you better, so we have a toll-free number. 3. Although it was raining, the picnic was held outside. 4. It was raining, and the picnic was held inside. 5. The contract expired on December 31. 6.

With that rsum, you will definitely find a job! 7. I wasnt planning to come because you dont want me to. 8. Come to my office after you finish the report. 9. Stay in your office to finish the report. 10. Well be ready when the time comes. Exercises 6 - 9, p. 62-63

Review 1, 2 & 3 p. 67-69 STOP AND PRACTICE Week 2 Writing Process: Warm-Up LAST WEEKS HOMEWORK REVIEW Evaluate the summary on p. 17: Exercise 4: Summary About One of My Favorite Garments DISCUSS & WRITE

Discuss American Space, Chinese Place, reacting with: your own experience your own opinions (can you back them up?) a critical analysis: Do you agree with the writers perspective? Why or why not? Using your best writing skills, write a reaction and turn it in (dont forget your name!)

Week 2 Writing Process: Stage One: Prewriting WHAT IS A PARAGRAPH? A group of sentences Each sentence has a function: To state a topic sentence contains the controlling idea To support the topic sentence

TWO PARTS OF A PARAGRAPH: Topic sentence contains Subject (topic) Treatment (what you will do with the topic) Supporting sentence(s) contain Evidence or reasoning Details Examples Explanations

COMMON COLLEGE PARAGRAPH PATTERNS: Pattern A Topic sentence Supporting sentences Pattern B Topic sentence Supporting

sentences Concluding sentence EXAMPLE See Magic Johnson, an NBA Great, by Cyrus Norton, p. 269 of text. Some NBA (National Basketball Association) players are good because they have a special talent in one area. Magic Johnson was a great NBA star because he was excellent in shooting, passing, rebounding, and leading. WRITING PROCESS: STAGE ONE Your Writing Topic

assigned unassigned Exploration & Information Gathering Use different graphic organizer techniques STUCK? Surf the Internet for Ideas Leads Issues Questions BEST WEB SITES FOR GETTING STARTED

PCC Research Library http://www.pcc.edu/library/resea rch/ Databases by Subject Opposing Viewpoints BEST WEB SITES FOR GETTING STARTED Google http://www.google.com/intl/en/options/

Book Search Earth Images News Scholar

Web Search BEST WEB SITES FOR GETTING STARTED Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org Languages Citations WIKIPEDIA WARNINGS . . . Reliability & bias: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia#Reliability_a nd_bias

Tertiary source, not as good as: Primary source Original thing, like the Constitution Secondary source Academic book or article about the original thing, like a book about the Constitution THE PREWRITING PROCESS

Freewriting Brainstorming Clustering FREEWRITING Freewriting is: writing without stopping, letting your ideas tumble forth

Freewriting helps you break mental barriers generate topics discover & explore ideas There is really no wrong way to freewrite! BRAINSTORMING: THE BIG SIX 1. 2. 3.

4. 5. 6. Who? American adults What? Mandatory voting in political elections Where? In counties, cities, states When? Election time (mainly presidential?)

Why? Civic responsibility, duty, privilege, requirement? How? Mailed like tax form? Enforcement issues? BRAINSTORMING: LISTING Words Elections Turnout Consequences Phrases

Mandatory voting Right vs. privilege vs. duty Same as taxes? Other countries doing this? CLUSTERING A graphic way of showing connections & relationships Main Topic Idea 5 Idea 4 Idea 1

Idea 3 Idea 2 THE FUNNEL right or privilege ? voting Will I vote? Should voting be mandatory? M y v o

t e d o e s n t C m iv a Should ic voting be tt D mandatory? e ut r y M

y v o t e m a tt THE RADIAL LIST El e ct io n s D e m

o c r a ti c ? N o t r e a ll y V ot in g

P ri v il e g e ? R i g h t ?

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