AEROSPACE AND MEDICAL TECHNOLOGY Essential Question: Analyze the effects of various scientific discoveries and technological innovations on the development of Texas such as advancements in the agricultural, oil and gas, computer, and aerospace
industries THE SPACE RACE The Space Race was a 20thcentury competition between two Cold War rivals, the Soviet Union (Russia) and the U.S. for supremacy in spaceflight capability. In 1961, a Soviet Cosmonaut
named Yuri Gagarin became the first human to enter space. Also during that year Astronaut Alan Shepard became the first American to enter space. THE SPACE RACE NASA began with 3 primary space programs in their quest for the moon: the Mercury (early 1960s), the Gemini (the mid-1960s), and the Apollo (late 1960s).
Astronaut Walter Cunningham, a civilian, piloted the Apollo 7 which provided the first live television transmission of onboard activities to America. Neil Armonstrong, Buzz Aldrin, and Mike Collins land on the moon in what year? THE SPACE RACE In 1981, President Ronald Reagan oversaw the
first space shuttle mission. 5 space shuttles were built: Atlantis, Challenger, Columbia, Discovery, and Endeavor. 2 shuttles exploded: Challenger in 1986 during takeoffand Columbia in 2003 during reentrance. Atlantis flew the last mission in 2011. Where are they now?
Discovery Smithsonian National Air & Space Museum, Chantilly, VA Atlantis Kennedy Space Center, Cape Canaveral, FL Endeavour California Science Center, Los Angeles, CA Enterprise (test orbiter) Intrepid Sea-Air-Space Museum, New York City, NY AGRICULTURE Agricultural productivity increased because of -
improvements in agricultural technology and machinery, use of better insecticides and pesticides, and expanded use of crop irrigation methods. - cotton planting moving westward - farmers and ranchers taking advantage of
economies of scale ENVIRONMENT Environmental problems led to Texas taking state and federal measures to clean up the air and water pollution Steps included: 1) creating the Texas Air Control Board to monitor air pollution, 2) passed laws which no longer allowed cities to burn garbage, 3) monitored industries to reduce water pollution in/around Houston Shipping Channel and bay area.
OPEC Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) was a cartel formed to control the supply and price of oil around the world In late 1970s, OPEC cut off all U.S. oil supplies because of U.S. ties/support of Israel; this started an oil shortage
energy crisis in the U.S. The energy crisis affected many Texans: 1) gasoline prices became much higher, 2) gasoline was rationed to customers, 3) gas stations had to close on Sundays JACK KILBY In 1958, Jack Kilby (a T.I. employee) invented the integrated silicon circuit, or
chip that was first used in calculators, computers, and watches. MICHAEL DELL In the 1980s, Michael Dell founded Dell Computers in Round Rock, Texas, when he decided to sell computers first, and then build them. His company initially had over $2 billion in sales with more than 4,800 employees.
MEDICAL TECHNOLOGY MEDICAL TECHNOLOGY There was a high interest in science and technology in Texas in the 1950s and 1960s. State tax money, federal grants, churches, and wealthy donors founded advanced hospitals and medical centers in Dallas,
Galveston, San Antonio, and Houston. This funded patient treatments, taught medical students, and engaged many Texans in medical research. DR. MICHAEL DEBAKEY Pioneered new techniques in treating heart disease by using synthetic materials to replace diseased blood vessels
In 1932 invented roller pump which makes open-heart surgery possible Helped develop the Mobile Army Surgical Hospital (MASH) units used during wartime Helped Baylor College of Medicine become a world-renowned medical institution DR. DENTON COOLEY 1st successful human
heart transplant in the United States 1st total artificial heart transplant in the world Founded the Texas Heart Institute in 1962 Chief of Cardiovascular Surgery at St. Luke's Episcopal Hospital Consultant in Cardiovascular Surgery at Texas Children's Hospital
Clinical professor of surgery at The University of Texas Medical School at Houston DR. BENJY BROOKS In her work at Texas Childrens Hospital and St. Josephs Hospital in Houston, she conducted research on congenital defects, burn treatment, spleen reparation, and the prevention of hepatitis.
A foundation set up in her name has advanced the surgical care of young children in Texas by endowing chairs at medical colleges, donating special equipment to hospitals and medical centers, and providing research grants for the study of pediatric illnesses and diseases. First woman pediatric surgeon in Texas
THE MEDICAL FIELD BOOM The medical industry continues to produce a major boom cycle in Texas, especially in the Houston, Dallas and San Antonio areas The Texas Medical Center in Houston, holds the world's largest concentration
of research and healthcare institutions, with 54 member institutions THE MEDICAL FIELD BOOM The M.D. Anderson Cancer Research Center is the leading research center in the nation. Most large and mid-size urban areas that are medical hubs support jobs and industries as a huge economic benefit.
THE MEDICAL FIELD BOOM Overall, scientific discoveries and technological innovations have resulted in an interdependence among Texas, the United States, and the world. Interdependence: mutual reliance on each other Partner/Class Discussion: How has the world changed due to interdependence?
What are some ways society has been positively affected because of interdependence? Are there any ways society has been negatively affected because of interdependence?
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