TUBERCULOSIS By Dr. Zahoor 1 Tuberculosis (TB) Epidemiology It is estimated that 1/3 of the Worlds population are infected with latent TB Majority of the cases around 65% are seen in Africa and Asia (India and China)

Co-infection with HIV remains a problem Drug resistant strain are problem 2 Tuberculosis (TB) Factors affecting prevalence and risk of developing TB in the developed countries: Contact with high risk group - Frequent travel to high incidence area

Immune deficiency - HIV infection - Immunosuppressant therapy - Chemotherapy - Corticosteroids - Diabetes Mellitus - Chronic Kidney Disease - Malnutrition 3 Tuberculosis (TB) Factors affecting prevalence and risk of

developing TB in the developed countries(cont): Life Style Factors - Drug abuse - Alcohol misuse - Homeless/Hostel/Overcrowd - Prison inmates 4 Tuberculosis (TB) Pathophysiology

TB is caused by four main myobacterial species 1. Mycobacterium tuberculosis 2. Mycobacterium bovis 3. Mycobacterium africanum 4. Mycobacterium microti They are aerobes and intracellular pathogen, usually infecting mononuclear phagocytes They are slow growing They are acid fast bacilli, and stained with Ziehl Neelson stain 5

Tuberculosis (TB) Pathogenesis TB is airborne infection spread via respiratory droplet When bacteria are inhaled, all people do not develop disease, because after exposure to TB bacilli, outcome depends on number of factors After initial inhalation of TB bacilli, innate immune response clears bacilli, therefore, no infection

6 Tuberculosis (TB) Pathogenesis (cont) If bacteria are not destroyed, they can cause - Pulmonary TB - 55% - Extra pulmonary TB - 45% - Extra pulmonary may be - lymph node, bone, brain, GIT, genitourinary, pericardial, eye, skin, Miliary, disseminated

7 The consequences of exposure to TB 8 Primary Tuberculosis It is the first infection with

mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTb) Once inhaled in the lung, alveolar macrophages ingest the bacteria The bacilli, then proliferate inside the macrophage and cause attraction of neutrophil and cytokines resulting in inflammatory cell infiltrate in the lung and hilar lymph nodes 9 Primary Tuberculosis Macrophages present the antigen to the T-

lymphocyte with development of cellular immune response A delayed hypersensitivity type reaction occurs, resulting in tissue nacrosis and formation of granuloma Granulomatous lesion consist of central area of nacrotic material called caseation, surrounded by epitheloid cells and langans giant cells with multiple nuclei, both cells being derived from macrophage 10

Primary Tuberculosis Later caseated areas heal and become calcified Some of these calcified nodules contain bacteria and are capable of lying dormant

(inactive) for many years The initial focus of disease is termed Ghon focus On chest X-ray Ghon focus is seen as small calcified nodule in mid zone A focus can also develop within draining lymph node 11 Latent Tuberculosis In majority of TB cases, who are

infected, the immune system contains (stops) the infection (Granuloma formation) and patient develops cell mediated immune memory cells to the TB bacilli. This is termed Latent Tuberculosis. In latent TB infection, the TB bacilli remain inactive and does not cause active infection 12 Reactivation Tuberculosis

The majority of the TB cases are due to reactivation of latent TB infection The initial contact with TB bacilli occurred many years or decade earlier Factors implicated in the development of active disease - HIV co-infection - Immunosuppressant/Chemotherapy/Corticosteriods - Diabetes Mellitus - End stage chronic kidney disease - Malnutrition

- Aging 13 DIFFERENCE BETWEEN LATENT TB & ACTIVE TB Latent TB Bacilli present in Ghon focus Sputum smear and culture negative Tuberculin skin test or Mantoux test usually positive Chest X-ray normal calcified Ghon focus usually seen

Asymptomatic Not infectious to others 14 DIFFERENCE BETWEEN LATENT TB & ACTIVE TB Active TB Bacilli present in tissues or secretions In pulmonary disease, sputum smear and culture positive Tuberculin skin test usually positive and can ulcerate

Chest X-ray shows signs of TB (consolidation, cavitation, pleural effusion) Symptomatic fever, cough, night sweats, weight loss Infectious to others if bacilli present in sputum 15 16 Clinical Features and Diagnosis Pulmonary, pleural and laryngeal TB

Pulmonary TB - Patients are frequently symptametic, with productive cough and occasionally hemoptysis - There are systemic symptoms of weight loss, fever and sweats (commonly at night) Laryngeal TB - There is hoarse voice and severe cough Pleural TB - If pleura is involved then pleuritic pain is frequent complain 17

PULMONARY TB INVESTIGATION Chest X-ray demonstrate several findings Consolidation with or without cavitation Pleural effusion or thickening Widening of the mediastinum caused by hilar or paratracheal lymphadenopathy 18

CHEST X-RAY SHOWING TB RIGHT UPPER LOBE WITH CAVITATION 19 PULMONARY TB INVESTIGATION (cont) Sputum smear and culture Bronchoalveolar Lavage Pleural fluid aspiration and pleural biopsy Bronchoscopic examination/Biopsy of

vocal cord for culture and histology in laryngeal disease 20 LYMPH NODE TB The next commonest site of TB infection is lymph

node Extra thoracic lymph node are more commonly involved than Intrathoracic or Mediastinal Lymph node are firm, non tender enlargement of cervical or supraclavicular nodes Lymph node become matted, necrotic centrally and can liquefy and can be fluctuant There can be sinus tract formation with prulent discharge (cold abscess formation) but there is no Erythema

On CT central area appears necrotic 21 Cervical Lymphadenopathy 22 MILIARY TB Miliary TB occurs through Haematogenous spread of the bacilli to multiple sites, including CNS

There are respiratory symptoms, other findings are liver, and splenic micro abscesses, with abnormal liver enzymes and GI symptoms X-ray chest shows multiple nodules 1-2 mm which appear like millet seeds, hence the term Miliary 23 Miliary Tuberculosis 24 CNS TB

In TB meningitis, lumber puncture findings are CSF finding - Protein is high - Glucose is low - Cells Lymphocytosis 25 OTHER FORMS OF TB Gastrointestinal

TB of bone and spine Central nervous system Pericardial Skin Details of this, you will do with related chapters 26 MICROBIOLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS Rapid identification of the bacteria by stains is

essential and should be performed Stains - Ziehl Neelson Stain of TB bacilli - Auramine rhodamine staining Culture - Lowenstein Jensen slopes (solid culture)

- Liquid culture Nucleic acid amplification (NAA) - For rapid identification of MTb PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) 27 MANAGEMENT Pulmonary tuberculosis six month treatment CNS TB 12 month treatment Pulmonary tuberculosis - Six months treatment

- For 2 months 4 drugs are given Isoniazid ( INH) Rifampicin Pyrazinamide Ethambutol - For next 4 months 2 drugs are given Isoniazid (INH) Rifampicin 28 MANAGEMENT For CNS TB 12 month treatment

- For 2 months 4 drugs are given Isoniazid (INH) Rifampicin Pyrazinamide Ethambutol - For next 10 months 2 drugs are given Isoniazid (INH) Rifampicin - In CNS TB Predinisolone 20-40mg daily, weaning over 2-4 weeks is also given 29

TREATMENT FOR LATENT TB Treatment is given for 3 months or 6 months, if given for 3 months 2 drugs are used, when given for 6 months 1 drug is used 3 months drugs used - INH - Rifampicin 6 months drug used - INH 30

MANAGEMENT Directly Observed Therapy (DOT) Due to poor compliance by the patient, WHO advocates DOT by health care persons to reduce the incidence of TB Criteria for DOT implementation - History of serious mental illness - History of non adherence to TB therapy - Homeless people - Multi drug resistance TB 31

SIDE EFFECTS OF DRUG TREATMENT Side effects of Rifampicin Induces liver enzymes, which are transiently increased, drug should be stopped if serum bilirubin or enzymes are elevated more than 3 times, but it is uncommon Thrombocytopenia Rifampicin stains body secretions to pink color, therefore, patient should be warned of change of color in urine, tears, sweat Oral contraception will not be effective, so

alternate birth control methods should be used 32 SIDE EFFECTS OF DRUG TREATMENT Side Effects of Isoniazid (INH) Polyneuropathy at high dose due to vitamin B6 (pyridoxine deficiency), therefore, pyridoxine 10mg is prescribed to prevent this Allergic reaction of skin skin rash, fever Hepatitis less than 1% Side Effects of Pyrazinamide Hepatitis

Decrease renal excretion of urate, therefore, may precipitate gout 33 SIDE EFFECTS OF DRUG TREATMENT Side Effect of Ethambutol Optic retro bulbar neuritis patient may present with color blindness for green, decrease visual acuity and central scotoma If drug is stopped, above side effects are reversible Side Effects of Streptomycin

Damage to vestibular nerve, more effect in elderly Renal impairment 34 TB IN SPECIAL SITUATION HIV co-infection Specially seen in Africa, India, Eastern Europe and Russia Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) CKD is risk factor for reactivation of TB infection due to immune paresis

35 LATENT TB INFECTION (LTBI) Diagnosis of Latent TB Infection involves demonstration of immune memory cells to mycobacterial protein, tuberculin skin test or Mantoux Test is done 1. Tuberculin skin test (TST) - A positive test is indicated by delayed hypersensitivity reaction seen in 48-72 hours after the interdermal injection

of PPD (Purified Protein Derivative) resulting in - raised indurated lesion > 6mm in diameter in non vaccinated adults - raised indurated lesion > 15mm in BCG vaccinated adults 36 Tuberculin Skin Test 37 Tuberculin skin test (TST)

False negative test are common in Immunosuppression due to - HIV - Chemotherapy - Steroids - Sarcoidosis False positive tuberculin test or Mantoux test - BCG vaccination 38 GLOBAL TB STRATEGY

To identify and treat latent TB infection to reduce the risk of conversion to active disease, active case finding programs are followed - Contact tracing carried out after diagnosis of new case of TB - Screening of health workers - Screening of new entrants those arriving from country of high incidence of TB - Home less people - Immunocompromised people HIV, malignancies, chemotherapy .

39 CASE HISTORY Case History of patient with night sweats and haemoptysis. A 35 year old Asian male had a 4 month history of night sweats and weight loss. Recently he had become more short of breath and had haemoptysis. He shared a room with four other family members. He has lived in the UK for 6 months. Though he remained haemodynamically stable, he had a temperature of

38oC. Bronchial breathing was heard in the right upper zone of his chest. He had a mantoux test which was read 48 hours later and found to be strongly positive. His X-ray chest is shown and his sputum showed acid fast bacilli. 40 Chest X-ray shows right upper lobe and left midzone consolidation and lymph adenopathy. 41 Questions:

1. What does a positive mantoux test mean? a. Indurated area > 6mm after 48 hours b. Indurated area > 10mm after 48 hours c. Indurated area > 15mm after 48 hours 2. What initial management steps should you take ? a. Isolate the patient b. Commence on antibiotics c. Commence on anti-TB medication 42 Questions: 3. Which of the following does not

typically cause a Cavitating lung lesion? a. Mycobacteria tuberculosis b. Staphylococcus aureus c. Haemophilus influenza d. Bronchogenic carcinoma 43 Answers: Answer to Question 1: a. Indurated area > 6mm after 48 hours

Answer to Question 2: a. Isolate the patient Answer to Question 3: c. Haemophilus influenza 44 THANK YOU 45

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