The Worlds of Christendom Connected and Divided Christianity Divided Rome = West (Odoacer invades Rome 476ce) Schism of 1054 Mutual excommunication -Eastern Orthodox Church / Roman Catholic
Church Byzantium / Constantinople = East Western Roman Empire = Hybrid Civilization West = Rural East = Urban/Cosmopolitan Eastern Christendom A continuation of the Roman Empire No clear beginning (Constantinople founded
330ce) Formal Division late 4th century Rome Falls -476ce and barbarians invade Eastern Advantages wealthier and more urbanized more defensible capital (Constantinople) shorter frontier
access to the Black Sea; command of eastern Mediterranean stronger army, navy, and merchant marine continuation of late Roman infrastructure conscious effort to preserve Roman ways Split of the Roman Empire
The Byzantine State Remained powerful until 1200s Centralized Politically Government bureaucracy based on Persians Emperor ruled as gods representative on earth Important tax collection / keeping records caeseropapism- church and state tightly
connected -emperor head of church and state Orthodox Christianity Legitimized imperial rule Cultural identity (barbarians to the west) Differences in Christianity West/East -priests celibacy
-shaving -Pope as head of church Schism of 1054 Mutual Excommunication Crusades begin in 1095 worsen the situation Byzantium in the World Intense interaction in Europe and Asia Crusades Islam pushing into Byzantine
Empire -diversity of victims -economic + political motives Greek Fire helped keep Byzantium standing so long Greek Fire would even burn on top of Water
Conversion of Russia Most important conversion was that of Prince Vladimir of Kiev Orthodoxy transformed state of Rus; became central to Russian identity Moscow finally declared itself to be the third Rome, assuming role of protector of
Christianity after fall of Constantinople Western Christendom On the Periphery of the world -far removed from trade routes Geography made political unification difficult Roman Collapse in 476ce -Barbarians Invade
-Rome becomes bankrupt (coliseum games, army) -lead poisoning? Western Political Makeup after 476 Large-scale centralized rule vanished Population fell by 25% - war/disease Less land cultivated Less Movement/ Dangerous / No Imperial
Army Decline in Literacy From Urban to Rural -Feudalism Feudalism Manor
Preservation of Roman Culture Many Germanic people were Romanized already -many served in the Roman army prior to the fall Adoption of Roman law system Attempts to recreate Roman imperial system
-Charlemagne -Otto I of Saxony - Holy Roman Empire c. 800ce -Attempts failed to re-create a Christian Empire The Wake of Roman Collapse New Kingdoms
-highly fragmented -great local variation -landowning warrior elite possessed most power Social Hierarchies -serfdom replaces slavery -life on the manor Stability was found in the Catholic Church
Catholic Church On Top Became VERY rich Conversion of most of Europe -Top-Down Conversion -considerable cultural accommodations -amulets, sacred wells, and festivals were preempted by Christianity Investiture Conflict Who appoints
pope/bishops? Change in the West 1000-1300 700-1000 Muslim Invasions 1000-1350 High Middle Ages Population Growth - climate warms up (30million-80million) - More movement of people
- Growth of Trade/Cities (Italy) Crusades Began in 1095 - wars at Gods command, authorized by the pope, for which participants received an indulgence (release from penalty for confessed sins)
- amazingly popular; were religious wars at their core - most famous Crusades aimed to regain Jerusalem and holy places - showed Europes growing organizational ability Crusades Map
Crusades Propaganda Lasting Impact of the Crusades Tens of thousands of Europeans made contact with the Islamic world - stimulated demand for Asian goods - learned how to produce sugar - Muslim/Greek scholarship entered Europe
- hardened cultural barriers - deepened the Catholic/Orthodox divide - development of anti-Semitism in Europe - memory of the Crusades still affects dealings between Western civilization and Islam Christians did not regain much land at all A Comparative Perspective Western Europe was less developed than
Byzantium, China, India, or the Islamic world Muslims regarded Europeans as barbarians Europeans recognized their own backwardness Europeans were happy to exchange with/borrow from more advanced civilizations to the east European economies reconnected with the
Eurasian trading system Europe Borrowing from the East Europeans welcomed scientific, philosophical, and mathematical concepts from Arabs, classical Greeks, and India - i.e. the compass, papermaking, gunpowder Europe developed a passion for technology
by 1500, Europe had caught up with China and the Islamic world; surpassed them in some areas Western European Politics Competing States -led to war / technological developments -paved the way for capitalism
-kings less powerful than the east -parliaments develop (nobles want power) Reason and Faith Intellectual tension between reason and faith Intellectual life flourished after 1000ce -University Schools, Humanism -development of natural philosophy(study of
nature) -applied reason to law, medicine, nature -searching for greek classical texts (Aristotle) Cathedral School in Europe
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