The Wars of Religion

The Wars of Religion

The Wars of Religion (1560s1648) Civil War In France (1562-1598) The Valois Family in France:

The Beginning of the End Henry II was the last powerful Valois King Three weak sons followed: Francis II (r.1559-1560) Charles IX (r.1560-1574) Henry III (r.1574-1598) Catherine de Medici controlled her sons: Developed a reputation for

cruelty Catherine de Medici Francis II & his Wife, Mary Stuart The French Civil War There were two sides:

Guise family led Catholics in North Bourbon family led Huguenots in South Fighting for the royal inheritance Catherine supported the Guises in the first phase. St. Bartholomews Day Massacre

August 24, 1572 20,000 Huguenots were killed Henri of Navarre, a Bourbon, survived St. Bartholomews Day Massacre

The French Civil War War of the Three Henrys (1585-1589) King Henry III Henry of Guise- Catholic Henry of Navarre- Huguenot Henry of Guise and Henry III were assassinated in 1589. Henry of Navarre defeated Catholic League & becomes Henry IV of France.

Effects of Civil War: France was left divided by religion Royal power had weakened Henry IV of France Ended Spanish interference in France

Converted to Catholicism : Did this to compromise and make peace This was an example of politique [the interest of the

state comes first before any religious considerations] Fighting for the royal inheritance Passed Edict of Nantes in 1598:

Granted religious rights to Huguenots Did not grant religious The Thirty Years War (1618-1648) 16181648

Characteristics of the Thirty Years War The Holy Roman Empire was the battleground. At the beginning it was the Catholics vs. the Protestants. At the end it was Habsburg power that was threatened. Resolved by the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648.

The Bohemian Phase: 1618- 1622 (modern day Czech Republic & Slovakia) Ferdinand II inherited Bohemia.

The Bohemians hated him. Calvinists demanded more freedom from Catholic Habsburg ruler. Ferdinand refused to tolerate Protestants. Defenestration of Prague: May, 1618 Two of the emperors officials thrown out of window in Prague during negotiations The Bohemian Phase: Results:

1618- 1622 Bohemia named a new king, Frederick V Ferdinand II borrowed an army from Bavaria. Catholic League and Spanish Habsburgs offer support Ferdinand II becomes Holy Roman Emperor.

Frederick lost his lands in the fighting. The rebellion in Bohemia inspired others, but Bohemia becomes Catholic by 1635. Bohemian Phase The Danish Phase:

Ferdinand 1625-1629 II tried to end all resistance. Tried to crush Protestant northern Holy Roman Empire. Ferdinand II used Albrecht von Wallenstein for the army. King Christian IV, Protestant leader of Denmark intervenes to defend fellow Protestants in Northern Germany

Wallenstein scores major victories and defeats Protestants in north. Edict of Restitution (1629): Restored to Catholics all lands lost since 1552. Deprived all Protestants, except Lutherans, of their religious and political rights. Calvinism is outlawed. German princes feared Ferdinand

he fired Wallenstein in effort to calm them. Danish Phase The Swedish Phase: 1630-1635 France & Sweden

now get involved. Both want to stop Habsburg power. Sweden led the charge. France provided support. Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden and Protestant leader, invaded the HR Empire to support fellow Protestants. Ferdinand II brought back Wallenstein. Adolphus dies in Battle of Luetzen (1632)

Swedish advance was stopped. German princes still feared Ferdinand II. Wallenstein assassinated to appease them. Edict of Restitution revoked Southern Germany remains Catholic Cardinal Richelieu of France provides aid to Sweden as a way to destroy

Habsburg power. Swedish Phase The French Phase: All countries in Europe now participated 1635-1648 (except England).

France & Sweden switched roles. France now led the charge, Sweden provided support. The French Phase: 1635-1648 French want to destroy Habsburg power.

Religious issues become secondary to political Coalition of Catholic France and Protestant countries (Netherlands, Switzerland, Germany) fight Catholic Habsburgs. This phase was most destructive! 8 million dead 1/3 of the population [from 21 million in 1618 to 13.5

million in 1648] German towns decimated. Caused massive inflation. Trade was crippled throughout Europe. Agriculture collapsed famine resulted. Loss of German Lives in 30 Years War

The Peace of Westphalia Political Provisions: (1648) Each German prince became free from any kind of control by the HR Emperor. The United Provinces [Dutch Netherlands] became officially independent southern part remained a

Spanish possession. France received most of the German speaking province of Alsace. Sweden got lands in Northern Germany on the Baltic & Black Sea coasts. Switzerland became totally independent of the HR Emperor Swiss Confederation. Sweden won a voice in the Diet of

the HR Empire Brandenburg got important territory in central Germany & on the North Sea. (will later become Prussia) The Peace of Westphalia (1648) Religious Provisions: Calvinists would have the same

privileges as the Lutherans had in the Peace of Augsburg. The ruler of each state could determine its official religion, BUT [except in the hereditary lands of the Habsburgs], he must permit freedom of private worship. 1688-1700

Nobody Was Happy! Many Protestants felt betrayed. The pope denounced it. Only merit: it ended the fighting in a war that became intolerable! For the next few centuries, this war was blamed for everything that went wrong in Central Europe.

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