The Reformation Objective Understand why the Reformation developed Understand the impact Martin Luther had on Western Civilization Why the Reformation?
1. Abuses of the Church Indulgences- pardons for sins (used to build the dome of St. Peters
basilica in Rome) Simony Relics 2. Renaissance Ideas Humanism
Printing pressmoveable type allowing ideas to spread St. Peters Basilica, Vatican City Martin Luther German monk and priest Became doctor of theology at the Wittenburg University Challenged John Tetzels sale of
indulgences in German lands Wrote the 95 Thesis, or statements of opinion, listing the complaints Luther had with the Church He did NOT want to hurt the Church, just reform it The Response to Luthers challenge
Pope Leo X (a member of the Medici family) God gave us the papacylet us enjoy it Threatened to excommunicate
Luther Papal Bull of excommunication Here I Stand: Diet of Worms, 1521 Emperor Charles V and Pope Leo X summon Luther to
Worms to answer charges of heresy Frederick the Wise obtained agreement of Luthers safe passage to and from Worms Will Luther recant? After the Diet of Worms
Charles V considers Luther an outlaw Protected and hid at Wartburg castle in Saxony by Frederick the Wise Allowed for the survival and further development of the Reformation and its ideas Bible in the vernacular-original language Bible is the ONLY true authority Development of the Lutheran Church (Lutherans)
The Support of German Princes Many princes in the North agreed with Lutherchallenged Charles V/Catholic Church Fighting between North and South Protestants-protest of Catholic/Imperial actions 1530 Augsburg Confession Written by Philip Melanchthon
Confesses the faith of all Lutheransofficially splits Western Christianity into two camps (Protestants and Catholics) 1555 Peace of Augsburg Charles V and German princes agree on: Catholic Prince =
Catholic State Lutheran Prince = Lutheran State Impact of the Reformation 1. Split Western Europe into religious camps 2. Further stressed the importance of education
3. Catholic reform Counter-Reformation: attempts of Catholic Church to reform from within Council of Trent Why was Luther so successful? 1. Luthers determination to reform 2. The Printing Press rapidly spreading Luthers ideas
3. The willingness of German princes to protect Luther allowing his ideas to spread Reformation Timeline 1517- Martin Luther posts his 95 Thesis; speaking out against indulgences 1521- Luthers trial at the Diet of Worms 1525- Peasants Revoltthousands of
peasants slaughtered 1530- Augsburg Confession written provides articles of faith for Lutherans Reformation Timeline 1534- Act of Supremacy in England Henry VIII creates Church of England 1546- Luther dies 1555- Peace of Augsburg allowing
Lutheran worship 1618- Thirty Years War 1648- Treaty of Westphaliaends religious wars in Europe
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