The Puritans

The Puritans

The Puritansand Hiand Hi sand Hitorical Backgroun d AP Comp Mrs. Bartel Background 20-40,000 years ago Ice Age hunters crossed the Bering land bridge from Siberia to what is now Alaska. Native Americans did not think of themselves as living in a single nation. Early explorers first observations written in Spanish and French. Columbus arrives in Guanahani (Bahamas) in 1492.

Background Motivation for first explorers to come to the new world: Discovery of new lands Money and power for monarchs Wanted money for exploration Challenges/Adventure Looking for shortcut to India and China

Henry VIII 1534 Act of Supremacy-Supreme Head of the Church of England. Formation of the Anglican Church (Church of England) Puritans and Separatists Left for the New World Concerned about the influence of the Dutch Afraid of losing their spiritual identity. Hoped to establish a new settlement in America. Wanted to convert the Natives to Christians. Who were the Puritansand Hi? Puritans were a branch of the

Protestant church Their movement began in the 16th and 17th centuries Although they preferred to be called the godly, they were given the name Puritans for their struggle to reform or purify the Church of England Two Typesand Hi of Puritansand Hi: Separatists Held irreconcilable differences with the Church of England; they thought the church was corrupt and that they must distance

themselves from it Were persecuted under various monarchies in England First fled from England to Holland Later, came to found the Plymouth Colony in America in 1620 Non-Separatists Held less extreme views of the Church of England Believed in church reform rather than an overthrow of the church Came to America in 1630

and founded the Massachusetts Bay Colony Doctrine of Election / Predesand Hitination: Man is innately sinful; original sin means that we are incapable of any depravity Only those who are chosen by God (the elect) are saved; salvation is not based on your beliefs or

good works Bible supreme authority (helped justify treatment of American Indians) The grace of Christ allows the chosen the strength to follow the will of God The chosen will follow the path of righteousness Predesand Hitination continued No one knew who was or was not saved. Puritans believed that you must have a conversion experience in order to be accepted by God. Gods grace was given to the chosen, and this grace was demonstrated through ones behavior. Puritans

would, therefore, reflect upon themselves (selfexamination) for signs of this grace. So, even though they did not believe good works helped one get into heaven, they believed that living a godly life was evidence of being chosen. Asand Hi a resand Hiult of their belief in predesand Hitination, Puritansand Hi: Were always looking for signs Scrutinized daily events

Thought there was always a reason for everything Felt that Gods hand was in everything, no matter how insignificant Puritan Beliefsand Hi & Valuesand Hi: Puritans believed in a literal interpretation of the Bible

They believed in explicit readings of the Bible, as opposed to church doctrines They did not believe in excess worship; they wanted no rituals, adornments, no stained glass, no cushioned pews, no singing, and no music They wanted to keep things simple so that they could concentrate on God There is a constant struggle between the forces of God and Satan God rewards the good and punishes the wicked Education & Work Ethic:

They believed in living a virtuous, self-examined life They believed in strict discipline and had a strong work ethic They felt that qualities that led to economic success were virtuous They valued education Harvard was founded in 1636 to train ministers They wanted their children to get far away from the evils of England Children were not allowed to play games; boys were taught to go hunting and fishing, while girls were taught how to run a household Women were considered less

capable intellectually, physically, theologically, and morally (Eve was the first sinner) Literature for pleasure was highly censored Puritan Literature & Writingsand Hi: They did not write for pleasure or entertainment. One reason was the fact that they were struggling to build their settlement. Another reason was the fact that they considered works of fiction frivolous and possibly immoral. Types of texts: - historical documents: preserving their history and offering justifications to relieve the guilt they felt over leaving relatives behind in England - personal journals: as tools for self-reflection/ examination and as a way to look for signs of salvation

- poetry, but highly inspired by religious beliefs - religious tracts (a pamphlet or leaflet of political or religious propaganda) Puritan Plain Style: Plain Style: a mode of expression characterized by its clarity, accessibility, straightforwardness, simplicity, and lack of ornamentation. In early America, the plain style aesthetic had broad cultural relevance, shaping the language of prose and poetry, the design of furniture and architecture, painting and other visual arts. Rejecting ornamental flourishes and superfluous decoration as sinful vanity, plain stylists worked to glorify God in their expressions rather than to show off their own artistry or claim any renown for themselves. This aesthetic appealed to both Puritans and Quakers.

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