The Origin and Growth of Liberalism

The Origin and Growth of Liberalism

The Origin and Growth of Liberalism Related Issue # 2 Where do we come from? What are we? Where are we going? To understand what liberalism is and how it affects us we must examine the development and history of liberalism. Unit 2

Uncovering 19 Century Liberalism th Chapter 3 To what extent can classical liberalism impact a society? Classical liberalism puts greater focus on individual freedom Classical liberalism

originated in Great Britain. Classical Liberalism Stresses the importance of human rationality Classical Liberalism is an ideology that embraces the principles of individualism. Rule of Law Rights and Freedoms Private Property Economic freedom Self-interest Competition

Classical liberalism means the original ideals or liberalism Liberty essentially means freedom, therefore liberalism is an ideology based on freedom In other words A market order based on private property is thus seen as an embodiment of freedom Unless people are free to make contracts and to sell their labour, or unless they are free to save their incomes and then invest them as they see fit, or unless they are free to run enterprises when they have obtained the

capital, they are not really free. (Gaus and Courland Liberalism, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2008)) Classical liberalism values political freedom and a free market economy that has limited government intervention within the economy. Modern liberalism is different because it advocates a greater role for the state in society. Therefore 14th-16th Centuries: Renaissance Modern Liberalism:

*Proposes government regulations with in the economy. *Separation between church and state. Classical liberalism *Proposes less government involvement with the economy. *Awareness of individualism. *Growth of Secularism. Who are the humanist?

A group of thinkers who emerged in the late 14th century (Italy and France) Someone who believes in the supremacy of reason of individuals over faith (truth based on deduction and logic) Believed in the importance of arts and literature as celebrations of human accomplishment rather than faith Questioned authority, teachings, and practices of the Catholic Church Development of Classical Liberalism The following events help shape classical

liberalism: Renaissance Enlightenment/Age of Reason Humanist Protestant Reformation American Revolution: 1776 French Revolution: 1789 Industrial Revolution: 18th -19th Centuries The power of the market Individual reward for individual initiative Freedom to pursue personal wealth Individual responsibility for success or failure Progess, inventiveness, innovation, efficiency

1400-1600 The Renaissance Awareness of individualism grew 1517- The Protestant Reformation Growing secularism 1700s- The Enlightenment/Age of Reason Democratic values were strengthened 1750-1850- Industrial Revolution Economic freedom grew along with individual values.

1776- American Revolution 1789- French Revolution 1900s- Liberalism Renaissance The Renaissance fostered the belief of individualism in society The Reformation built on the ideas of the Renaissance by transforming the Christian faith through the importance of reason. Ultimately both of these events fueled the Enlightenment or the Age of Reason, and as a result Classical Liberalism was born. Within the Enlightenment a group of Italian and

French philosophers called Humanists, emerged. Humanist developed an interpretation of history, structure of society and life based on reason and logic opposed to religion. Leonardo da Vinci Leonardo -Great renaissance thinker -Known for paintings, scientific ideas, and inventions -Figure shows a drawing he made in late 1480s for a type of aircraft called an

ornithopter -To what extent could an ideological conflict of reason vs. faith impact the structure and foundation of a society and peoples lives? Protestant Reformation The Reformation dramatically altered the political, economic and social circumstance of Europe by opposing the Catholic Church. It also challenged the hierarchical

concentration of religious power and any corruption of this power at this time. Many high priests at the time asked peasant for donations in order to ensure their acceptance into heaven. Ex Notre Dame Enlightenment The Enlightenment was a time period of great political and economic change which was proposed by thinkers and philosophers of the era. Est REMEMBER: ate was divided into

European society at the time 1 3 classes or estates Ch urc Estate h 2 Nobles Estate 3 Merchants / Peasants At this time Kings ruled by Divine Right and the economy was

organized by the feudal system. With the ideas of the Enlightenment came the breakdown of the feudal economic order, since people became more involved in oversea trade, urbanization grew and a wealthy middle class emerged. (industrial Revolution) At the same time there was political struggles for a less As a result Classical liberalism emerged which was a political and economic

philosophy that encouraged: The primacy of individual rights and freedoms The belief that humans are reasonable and can make rational decisions that will benefit both themselves and society as a whole Economic freedom, involving the ownership of private property and free markets (markets with limited government intervention) The protection of civil liberties Constitutional limitations on the government Thinkers of the Time

The following thinkers of the time contributed to the ideology of liberalism: Thomas Hobbes John Locke Jean-Jacques Rousseau Charles de Secondat, baron de Montesquieu Adam Smith John Stuart Mills Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) English Philosopher He believed human nature is characterized

by fear, violence, and dangerous self-interest (extreme individualism) He believed that if everyone is free, then everyone is in danger; that security is more important than freedom He did not think it was possible to have both security and freedom Individuals must give up their sovereignty in exchange for security. John Locke (1632-1704) Also an English philosopher Unlike Hobbes, Locke believed humans are rational, intelligent, and reasonable.

Locke opposed the authoritarianism of the Church and the state and believed that individuals had the right to use their reason and logic to make their own decisions. He also believed the source of power was the people themselves. He believed that any government action had to be justified by popular consent (democracy). However he believed in the social contract where people must give up some of their rights to a Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) Swiss Philosopher Believed people are inherently good but have

been corrupted by society and civilization Believed men are naturally free and equal Wanted humans to go back to these natural, good characteristics He believed the will of the people was the absolute authority but, unlike Locke, did not believe in representative democracy, but in a direct democracy He believed citizens should make the laws Charles de Secondat, baron de Montesquieu (Pay attention to me!) (1689-1755) French Enlightenment thinker whose

writings were banned by the Catholic church Montesquieu believed in the worth of the individual, the equality of individuals, and the accountability of the government. He also believed strongly in the separation of powers in government (executive, legislative, and judicial). Within this system of Checks and Balances each branch would be both separate from and dependent on one another so that no one branch became too powerful. However in order for this system to work people needed to be involved in government-a democracy. John Stuart Mill

(1806-1873) English philosopher He was interested in the protection of individual freedom and the promotion of individual decision making as the core of societal institutions He believed that the only limitations that should be placed on the individual were those that would protect others (i.e. The only restrictions on people should be those that prevent harm to others) Mill also strongly advocated free speech Parents of Liberalism

Enlightenme nt (political parent) Liberalis m Industrial Revolution (economic parent) Industrial Revolution: The Origins of Laissez-Faire Economics In approx 1750 the Industrial Revolution

occurred in Great Britain. Britains economy was traditionally based on agriculture however during the Industrial Revolution this changed to a factory based system in urban centers. Industrial Revolution in Great Britain The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain for the following reasons: Great Britain had a large naval and merchant fleets that could be used to trade with other areas of the world and gain resources of distance colonies.

Britain also had a large investment capital and cheap labour with many inventors causing new technology. Power was shared between the parliament and the monarchy. Parliament was made up of powerful land owners. This lead to the Enclosure Act which privatized farm land forcing thousands of small farmers to the cities looking for work. Results of the Industrial Revolution Together these resulted in: The development of the factory system Mechanization of labour

Mass production Consumption of consumer goods Expansion of capitalism and free enterprise A large gap between the extremely rich and the extremely poor Slums Starvation Child labour and worker abuse along with The degradation of the environment Laissez-Faire Economics French term- leave (people) alone to do (as they wish)

It referred to a reduction of government involvement in the economy It emerged from the theories of the physiocrats. a group of Enlightenment philosophers in France who critiqued the prevailing economics of mercantilism. Mercantilism is the idea that the primary goal of the economy is to strengthen the power and wealth of the state. In order to do so high government regulation is necessary. Laissez-Faire Laissez-faire reflects the following ideas:

Individuals nee to be given freedom to make their own decisions. Therefore laissez-faire is contradicting mercantilism. Individuals selfishness and competitiveness will eventually improve their own society. Adam Smith (1723-1790) Scottish political economist He believed that if people worked first and foremost for themselves, everyone-including the state-would be better off. He published The Wealth of Nations (1776) in

which he insisted individual self-interest in a free-market would strengthen the economy and benefit most people. He provided the foundation of much of the capitalist system Friedrich Hayek The can be no freedom of press if the instruments of printing are under government control, no freedom of assembly if the needed rooms are so controlled, no freedom of movement if the means of transportation are a government monopoly

Which principle of liberalism does Friedrich Hayek believe is crucial? Complete the chart and answer questions 2 and 3 on Thinkers p113 Hobbes Locke Montesquieu Smith

Mill Beliefs How their ideas were radical at that time How their ideas are related to classical liberalism The Evolution of Classical Liberal Thought

How did classical liberal thought evolve into the principles of liberalism? The American and French Revolutions in the late 1700s were attempts to implement the ideas of liberal thought. The American Revolution Liberal thinkers inspired the American colonists to declare independence from the British crown and establish a republican form of government where governing authority was invested in the hands of its citizens and not a ruling monarch.

The French Revolution Following the American Revolution, the French Revolution was an attempt to transform society using liberal principles. Recall reasons for the French Revolution... Social: The class system of the 3 estates Political: people had no say within the government and Estates General failed Economic: unequal taxation, expensive wars, lavish spending of the king. Compare liberalism to The Declaration of

the Rights of Man and of the Citizen... men are born and remain free and equal in rights... Rights are liberty, property, security and resistance to oppression.. Liberty consists of freedom to everything which does not injure anyone else.. Law is the expression of the general will.. Free communication of ideas and opinions is one of the most previous of the rights

Aboriginal Influence on Liberalism in North America The Great Law of Peace, or the Constitution of the Haudenosaunee Confederacy, established equal participation of the people, including women, in the government. It also guaranteed certain rights and freedoms, including freedom of speech and the rights of individuals. Homework Read Voices on p 116- 117. Then complete the accompanying questions.

Complete Explore the Issue on p 118 Do questions 1,2,3 Liberal Principles in Action The principles of classical liberalism had become widespread in Western societies by the 19th century. This was the culmination of the political, economic, and social dynamics of the previous centuries. It culminated in with industrialization and capitalism This eventually led to the evolution of classical liberalism into modern liberalism

The Industrial Revolution circa 1750-1900 The Industrial Revolution was...the most farreaching, influential transformation of human culture since the advent of agriculture eight or ten thousand years ago. The consequences of this revolution would change irrevocably human labour, consumption, family structure, social structure, and even the very soul and thoughts of the individual. -Richard Hooker How are liberalism, capitalism, and industrialization linked?

Enclosure movement was created because of new technologies such as the seed drill. This movement pushed many people to the cities because they were not needed any more. Deregulated mercantilist system caused a free-trade approach to the economy which provide more capitial for the Industrial Revolution to occur and spread. Lets look at the connections... The Enclosure movement led to the

industrial Liberalism essentially means freedom. In what way did the Industrial Revolution allow people more freedom than agriculture or the feudal system?

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