THE ODYSSEY REVIEW OF THE BOOKS BOOK 5 Summary: Athena advocates for Odysseus; they send Hermes Odysseus is crying when we first encounter him Calypso points out that gods do not like it when goddesses sleep with mortals Hermes points out that no one can go against Zeuss wishes or orders and so they must follow them Odysseus is permitted to build a raft and sail away Poseidon notices and stirs up a major storm
Odysseus reaches land safely thanks to the gods Important Points: We meet Odysseus for the first time! BOOK 5 Questions: 1. Why does Calypso agree to let Odysseus go? Zeus has ordained it. 2. Why is Odysseus weeping and what does this show us about Greek culture? He misses his family and is alone. Greeks had a different idea
of heroism and seeing men emotional. 3. To what degree do the gods intervene in this book? 4. Why does Athena continue to advocate for Odysseus? 5. What kind of a character does Calypso seem to be? How does she treat Odysseus? She listens to Hermes and seems respectful of Odysseus. BOOK 9 Summary:
Odysseus begins to tell of his exploits He reflects back to his adventure with the Cyclops He and his ships land on the land of Cyclops They get trapped in his cave Cyclops is a huge, carnivorous monster who eats many of Odysseuss men Odysseus comes up with a plan and tricks the monster, giving him a false name (Nobody) He and 4 others stab Cyclopss eye and escape They hide underneath the rams, sheep
BOOK 9 Questions: 1. What about this particular exploit makes Odysseus look even more heroic, brave, and intelligent? 2. Why does Odysseus yell back and taunt the Cyclops, endangering his men and their escape? 3. Does Odysseus rely more on brains or brawns in this segment? What does this tell you about the ideal of an Epic Hero? 4. If Odysseus had not yelled his real name back to the Cyclops, would he have been able to sail right home to Ithaca? Explain
BOOK 10 Summary: Odysseus lands on a floating island, leaves, returns, and then is kicked out Then they land on the Laestrygonian land and a few of them get eaten. Finally, they land on the Aeaean island, home of Circe Circe uses drugs to change men into to pigs Hermes helps Odysseus come up with a strategy to get his men back He makes her swear that she will be true to her word They stay for 1 year, before leaving
They must go down to the House of Death (Hell) BOOK 10 Questions: 1. Odysseus continues to tell his own story; can you tell? Explain 2. What flaw do we see appear in Odysseus during this exploit? Is it the same we saw in Book 9? 3. What does Circe show us about Odysseus? What might she represent? 4. Does Odysseus rely most on his strength, intelligence, or the gods in this book? Find an example to support your assertion.
5. What do you think about Circe compared with Calypso and/or Polyphemus? BOOK 11 KINGDOM OF THE DEAD Summary: Odysseus travels down to the Kingdom of the Dead He offers sacrifices before he sees any spirits
He sees and talks to the ghost of his mother He then sees Tiresias The prophet Tiresias tells him to avoid the cattle of the sun and that the blood he sacrificed will allow spirits to approach him He sees lots of older kings and war heroes, including Agamemnon and Ajax BOOK 11 KINGDOM OF THE DEAD Questions: 1. What is different about this book than any others so far? In other words, what makes it unique? 2. If this book seems to stray from the plot, why is this it included in the Odyssey?
3. What does Tiresias tell Odysseus? 4. What eventually makes Odysseus flee back to his ship and away from the Kingdom of the Dead? 5. What does Odysseus tell Agamemnon about his son? BOOK 12 CATTLE OF THE SUN Summary: After leaving Hades, they go back to Circes island to properly bury Elpenor, as promised. Circe takes Odysseus aside and warns him of what challenges are ahead They encounter the Sirens, Scylla, & Charybdis. Then they arrive at the Island of the Cattle and the
Sun-god They get stuck there for a month and run out of food The men kill the cattle! As they leave, everyone is killed but Odysseus He lands on Ogygia (island of Calypso) by himself. BOOK 12 CATTLE OF THE SUN Questions: 1. Where do we see the continued importance of religion and emphasis on the gods? 2. Why is Odysseus the only one left surviving? 3. After hearing the background, why do you think Odysseus stayed so long with Calypso?
4. What warnings does Circe give Odysseus? Which ones do they obey? 5. Which villain is the scariest? Why?... BOOKS 13 17 (NOT READ) Book 13 Now that Odysseus is done, he plans to leave Scheria. The Phaecians help him and sail with him to Ithaca. Upon arriving Athena disguises him so no one will recognize Book 14 Odysseus hides with his old swineheard Eumaeus and he lies about his identity. Book 15 Athena goes to fetch Telemachus from Sparta. He returns to Ithaca, with a warning about being ambushed. Odysseus remains with Eumaeus.
Book 16 While Eumaeus is away, Odysseus reveals his true identity to his son, Telemachus. They devise a plan to overthrow the suitors. Book 17 Telemachus returns to the palace but does not reveal anything to his mother. Odysseus shows up disguised as a beggar. The suitors ridicule him and Antinous hits him. BOOK 18 THE BEGGAR-KING OF ITHACA Summary: A tramp (Odysseus) encounters another beggar named Arnaeus (Irus for short) They get into an argument
One of the suitors (Antinous) hears this and promises the winner a sausage Odysseus easily defeats Irus, but no one knows who he is Penelope confronts the suitors, insults them, so they all fetch gifts for her The stranger (Odysseus) is allowed to stay for the night BOOK 18 THE BEGGAR-KING OF ITHACA Questions: 1. What strengths of Odysseus are evident in this book? 2. What weakness of Odysseus is evident here?
3. What does this book show us about Penelope? 4. Make a prediction about what Odysseus will do in the morning and what will happen in general BOOKS 19 & 20 (NOT READ) Book 19 Odysseus and Telemachus get the hidden weapons ready. A servant recognizes Odysseus but he quiets her. Penelope hears the beggar tell tales of Odysseus, but declares her intention to remarry. Book 20 Odysseus and Penelope have trouble sleeping. Lots of symbols in this book dreams and birds. The suitors continue to plot to kill
Telemachus. BOOK 21 ODYSSEUS STRINGS HIS BOW Summary: Odysseus, still in disguise, is present for the stringing the bow contest. Penelope does not know who he is. Telemachus sets up the contest. Several men try to string the bow and fail. Odysseus, dressed as a beggar, speaks up that he would like to try The suitors laugh at him and mock him He tries anyway and is successful. Zeus sends a bolt of lightning as symbol!
BOOK 21 ODYSSEUS STRINGS HIS BOW Questions: 1. Who knows about Odysseus? 2. How does Odysseus test the goatherd and swineherd? 3. Why does Telemachus send his mother away from the competition? 4. How do the suitors react when Odysseus asks to compete? 5. What happens after Odysseus has strung the bow? BOOK 22 (NOT READ) Summary:
Odysseus shoots Antinous first Then the battle rages! Eurymachus charges Odysseus, but is swiftly killed Athena joins the battle disguised as Mentor, but only encourages Odysseus at first. After she sees Odysseuss strength and bravery, she joins in the fighting and the battle is soon over Odysseus has Telemachus round up the traitor-servingwomen and has them executed as well Its a bloodbath, but Odysseus is finally avenged. BOOK 23 THE GREAT ROOTED BED Summary Nurse tells Penelope that Odysseus is home and has
slaughtered all of the suitors Penelope does not believe her. The nurse says she will show her the scar but Penelope is still not convinced Odysseus is bathed and dressed royally still she doesnt believe Finally, she mentions the bed, and Odysseus launches into the story of the bedThis convinces Penelope! He tells her all of his exploits He wakes the next morning and heads off to do one last thing (Tiresias told him to do it) BOOK 23 THE GREAT ROOTED BED
Questions 1. How did Odysseus get the famous scar? 2. Why does it take Penelope so long to believe its actually Odysseus there in the house? 3. What secret about the bed would only Odysseus know? 4. Why does Odysseus head off the very next morning? What is he going to do? 5. Who does with Odysseus on his last part of the journey? Why is this significant? 6. In what way do gods intervene in this book? BOOK 24 - PEACE Summary:
Hermes, the guide, escorts the souls of the suitors away from Ithaca Amphimedon & Agamemnon trade stories In the meantime, Odysseus reaches his fathers house and decides to test his father He ends up breaking out and telling his father when he sees how upset he is He uses the scar and knowledge of the farm to show his father his true identity Eupithes tries to incite a battle, but Athena intervenes and establishes peace BOOK 24 - PEACE
Questions: 1. What role(s) does Athena play in this particular book? 2. Why do you think Odysseus didnt just tell his father, but tried to test him first? 3. What about this book portrays Odysseus as a hero? 4. How does this portray 3 generations of men? What delights Laertes? 5. Are you surprised in the way the Epic Poem ended? Explain
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