THE METIS: HISTORICAL OVERVIEW June 11/09 Prepared by Larry McCallum Consultant Images are copyrighted by owners For Personal Use only

Mtis National Anthem by Unknown In the forest on the river, and across the western plain, a s the white man journeyed westward, to the land of the Indian. A new race was created, a new nation rose up strong. Hardship as its destiny, and its curse to not belong. In the land from which they came

in the land they helped to build. They found themselves the alien found their vision unfulfilled. And despite their valiant effort, to defend what they believe. When at last the battle ended, they were only left to grieve.

We are proud to be Mtis, Watch a nation rise again, Never more forgotten people, We're the true Canadian. From across the plain they traveled, from Red River to the Peace, searching for their own homeland, that would help them to replace, all the land that had been

taken, and the dreams that had been dashed, Their brave heroes now called traitors, and courageous deeds now past. We are Proud to be Metis

We are proud to be Mtis, Watch a nation rise again, Never more forgotten people, We're the true Canadian. For this newest generation, and the future ones to come, with the past to motivate us, it will help to keep us strong. As we build the Mtis nation, as we watch it rise again,

our past lost is motivation, to inspire our future gain. We are proud to be Mtis, Watch a nation rise again, Never more forgotten people, We're the true Canadian.

We are proud to be Mtis, Watch a nation rise again, Never more forgotten people, We're the true Canadian. The Metis of the East & West

THE METIS OF THE EAST: Eastern mixed-bloods were as important to the early economic system as they would become in the west Metis of the east: Mid-Ontario to the Maritimes The eastern Metis did not become a distinct society as they did in the west The final fate of these Metis was to integrate into the European Society of the time or, to integrate into the First Nations societies. Although there are people of aboriginal ancestry living in those areas today, they are considered by the Metis to be mixed-blood. The Metis culture is basically non-existent for them as it hadnt developed yet. THE METIS OF THE WEST: Reasons why the Metis became largely a western phenomenon They were more numerous in the west than in the east They were bi-lingual

They were skilled hunters They were religious They developed a mind-set around being Metis The Red River Metis and the Fur Trade Era - The demand for furs in Europe created an economic boom for traders/companies and provided a new source of livelihood for FN - Inter-marriage created a new nation of people, the mixed bloods later known as the Metis - Prior to 1821, there were two main economic rivals: The Hudson Bay Company owned and operated by the English and the North West Company owned and

operated by the French - The French Metis worked for the N.W.Co. and the English Metis worked for the H.B.Co. Metis Dependence on Fur Trade Metis Role and Dependence on the Fur Trade: - Trade created an interdependence between the FN, Metis and settlers - Competition was healthy - Bilingual Metis became middle-men for the FN and trading companies - Metis became suppliers of pemmican and meat to traders/explorers

- Metis provided transportation services with the Red River Cart and York boats - Trades items: guns, ammo, utensils, etc. - The concept of profits/money for a livelihood was accepted Ruperts Land 1670 1670-owned by the H.B.Co. by virtue of a land grant by the

English monarchy **The Metis people were settled in the Red River area at this time. Their presence was accepted by the H.B.Co. due to their value in the fur trade The Traditional Metis Homeland Territory of Assiniboia 1812 and the Selkirk Settlement

Metis lived there for 150 years or so In 1812, Lord Selkirk, part owner of the H.B.Co., received a land grant in order to bring over starving, mainly Scottish settlers. This

became known as the Selkirk Colony This land grant happened to be in the heart of Metis land The Selkirk Settlement Initial relationship was friendly as they

both shared the struggle to survive The Metis began small scale farming; the Scotts learned to hunt and trap But, the table was set for land and trade issues, especially because the French Metis mainly worked for the NWCo and the English Metis for the HBCo Battle of Seven Oaks 1816

By 1816, the H.B.Co had a trade monopoly in the Territory of Assiniboia They banned trade goods from leaving the territory (maintain their monopoly) Created a blockade on the trading route so the Metis could not transport goods East Cuthbert Grant became the first important Metis leader: He organized the Metis in an attempt to break the blockade

In a battle that lasted 15 minutes, the H.B.Co lost 20 men and the Metis 1 Result: This battle is often seen as the birth of the Metis Nation. There was an emergence of a new identity, that of being different. As well, there was a new nationalism The blue Metis flag was flown for the first time. It became a source of pride, identity, nationalism This flag is the oldest flag indigenous to North to North America Flag flown by the Metis at Seven Oaks in 1816 Early Metis Nationalism

The division of trade between the H B Co. and the N W Co. and their role in the fur trade Amalgamation of the two companies in 1821 The HBCo. Grant of Metis land to Lord Selkirk to create the Selkirk Colony The Red River Colony and its Metis Majority Metis leader: Cuthbert Grant

Battle of Seven Oaks 1816 Transfer of Ruperts Land to Canada after confederation The Red River Settlement 1821-1870 By 1821, the H.B.Co. and The N.W.Co. had

merged into a single entity. This created massive unemployment among the Metis in the territories The result: The Metis gathered and settled in great numbers in the Red River area Approximate population was 12,000: French Metis at 6,000; English Metis at 4,000; and First Nations/Non-natives at 2,000 This large gathering of Metis enabled the culture and identity to grow and to flourish Settlement pattern (GDI) Confederation 1867

Canada becomes a Country First Prime Minister: John A. MacDonald As part of becoming a country, Ruperts Land is transferred to Canada without consulting the

resident Metis. This created anger, more nationalism. Later, Ottawa sent surveyors to survey the Red River area, again without consulting the Metis residents. The Metis saw this as a threat to their land ownership A well educated Metis, Louis Riel, stepped forward to organize the Metis. They stopped the surveyors Ottawa saw the Metis as a threat to expansion/settlement and sent an armed force to the area to maintain order THE FIRST RESISTANCE First Provisional Government(temporary govt)

1869 Louis Riel formed the first Provisional Metis government in 1869. They had several worrisome happenings: - settlers - armed force on the way There is considerable discussion that this government was legal under international

law as this was still a territory The government was short lived Petitions to Ottawa To be allowed into Confederation with an elected, representative legislature Official form of bilingualism

Request for representation in parliament Recognition of existing land tenure and custom Survey systems Second Provisional Government 1870 is formed

Was formed to maintain order/law in the settlement It had the power to arrest trouble makers Executed Thomas Scott Put together a petition to form a new province with the hope of joining Canada

Fought to protect Metis land rights Thomas Scott Charged with treason Manitoba Act 1870 Manitoba joins

confederation as a new province when the Government passed the Manitoba Act of 1870 Metis not included in the government Received? 1.4 million acres of land in the form of scrip (240 acres for their children and each adult head of the family a further 160 acres) Affects of Manitoba Act

Riel fled to The USA to save himself from the Canadian militia who were on their way to enforce their version of order in the new province Metis Scrip( paper representing valued item such

) as land The displaced Metis people were promised 1.4 million acres of land to be distributed as scrip Scrip had the potential to destroy the Metis nation as scrip promised land somewhere in the Dominion (Canada) but it never specified where in

Canada; this led to a unity issue for the Metis people Problems Lands were not distributed until 1875 (5 years later) Most Metis lost their lands through fraud and to land speculators Metis were subject to continued harassment by new settlers Many Metis were forced from their lands without any settlement of claim Few families stayed to farm

GDI The First Metis Dispersal: Northern Manitoba Present day Alberta and Saskatchewan (see map) Northern USA

GDI The Metis begin again: The Saskatchewan Metis

Moose Mountain-Qu'Appelle River area Along the South Saskatchewan River at St. Laurent and Batoche In 1873, Gabriel Dumont set up a Metis community government at St. Laurent with himself as president The Metis had rules/laws for their people. Conflicts arose when Dumonts government tried to arrest HBCo hunters who were not following Metis laws The NWMP were called in, and the government quietly collapsed The Metis continued a lifestyle patterned after Red River

GDI Gabriel Dumont The Second Resistance: The Riel Resistance By the 1880s, a crisis was again at hand for the Metis: Buffalo were nearly extinct/livelihood Land was again being surveyed and opened up to homesteading Settlers were moving into the area Economic survival was threatened

Land was being given to railway companies In 1881, Ottawa decided to sell, rather than give land away, so this made land speculation a huge problem Riel Returns The French Metis, headed by Dumont, invited Riel back from exile in the US to lead

the Metis struggle They composed petition,1.) listing grievances and demands, 2.) representation in the Federal government; 3.) land rights In 1879 the Federal government had amended the Dominion Land Act to deal with Metis land scrip in the North West, however, when they finally agreed to allocate it in 1885, it was too late! Metis Provisional Government March 1885

The Metis felt a need to defend their territory and formed a Provisional Government Troops were on their way to Batoche The beginning of the Riel Rebellion (European Canadian perspective) or, as the Metis say, the Riel Resistance. Federal Government reasons for military action:

They didnt want bloody uprisings like those in the US They wanted to mobilize financial support in the east for a nearly bankrupt railway system Revenge for the execution of Thomas Scott

Establish power/order in the region for settlement Duck Lake Incident March 26, 1885 Approximately 200 Metis/First Nations against 100 well armed police and volunteers. The Metis suffered 5 dead, the police 12

Battle of Fish Creek April 24, 1885 Approximately 200 Metis against 400 army militia Riel Battle of Batoche May 9 12, 1885

Metis battle standard Videos: a. Riel Rebellion b. Four Bloody Days Batoche 1885 The steamer

The Church Troops Aftermath of the Resistance: Louis Riel Trial of Louis Riel Execution on November 16, 1885

Gabriel Dumont Gabriel Dumont escaped to the USA He became part of Wild Bills Wild West Show Returned to

Batoche in 1890 and died in 1906 GDI Second Metis Dispersal

Northern USA Calgary area Edmonton area Northern Saskatchewan Willowbunch area Fort QuAppelle area The Road Allowance People Mass grave at Duck Lake Issues

Constitution Act 1982 recognition of the Aboriginal peoples: First Nations; Metis; Inuit Metis Rights Governance Identity Land Claims

Present day Metis land claim (GDI) Metis Land Claim Overturned In December, 2007, the Supreme Court of Canada ruled against the Metis Land Claim

Why? Why? We remain the landless aboriginal people in Canada METIS WEBSITES Metis National Council Metis Nation of Sask.

Metis information History Metis community of Buffalo Narrows History of the Metis community of Ile a la Crosse Metis history, music, culture, etc. Metis Nation of Saskatchewan Manitoba Metis Federation BC Metis Nation

Metis Nation of Ontario Congress of Aboriginal Peoples: Proposes to represent aboriginal peoples Metis links

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