ACCESS Achieving Clear Communication in Educational for Student Success Cheryl Johnson, Ed.D. The ADEvantage Consulting www.adevantage.co m Access for Success
A Deaf Cooccurring Disabilities English Language Learners Interpreting Type: ASL SEE CASE Oral
Cued Speech Hearing Status Hard of Hearing Hearing Aids? Communicati on Approaches Additional Needs
Assistive Technolog y Options Communicati on Access Level: Elementary Secondary Transcription CART Captioning
Cochlear Implant? ListeningSpeaking English Sign ASL Auditory Communication Devices Visual Communication Devices Alerting Devices
Families Dreams Knowledge Acceptance Need for resources & training Todays Topics Importance of Access Communication Education Technology
Development of Self, Self-Concept, SelfDetermination, Self-Advocacy Strategies Considerations & Discussion Communic ation Education Technology ACCE SS Author Unknown Communication
Access: What does it mean to you? Communicati on ACCESS Cheryls definition: Accessible Education Environment that supports active participate in dialogue and application of knowledge
Access to receive informatio n Languag e to identify what is received Cognitio n to process and
derive meaning Communication access occurs when there is shared meaning. Communication Access Considerations Language Receptive Expressive Pragmatic Executive Function Classroom
Communication Access Attention/Fatigue Speech Understanding Distance listening/listening in noise Self-advocacy Classroom acoustics Classroom participation Assistive technology (HAT, captioning, instructional technology, social media) Communication Approaches vs Modes of Communication
ng Speech Reading ? Communication Approaches vs Modes of Communication Auditory Auditory-Visual Visual
Communication Mode Continuum: Receptive A Auditory Only Av Auditory w/visual support AV Auditory/ Visual
(Simultaneous Communication) Va Visual w/ auditory support V Visual Only 1:1 communication, therapy Classroom - Cooperative Learning Groups
Small Group Home Classroom Lecture Car Classroom - Discussion Theater Communication Mode Continuum: Expressive
O Fully Oral Os Mostly Oral OS Oral/Sign (Simultaneous Communication) So
S Mostly Sign Sign Only Communication Partners Communication Ease Preferred Communication Mode Communication Approaches MODE
APPROACH Primarily Auditory Listening and Spoken Language (LSL) Auditory - Oral Auditory with Visual Support Auditory Visual Visual with Auditory Support Primarily Visual Cued Speech
Bilingual-Bimodal Simultaneous Communication Manually Coded English ASL Bilingualism OCHL ACCESS: Summary of Evidence M.P. Moeller, Boys Town National Research Hospital A Audibility influences language growth rates Carefully Fit Devices with low error C C Consistently worn devices Environments that are language-rich and E responsive
Selected aspects of language at risk and need S emphasis Service provision guided by research and progress S monitoring Moeller & Tomblin (2015). Outcomes of Children with Hearing Loss, EAR & The Importance of Audibility Outcomes of Children with Hearing Loss Study OCHL Parent Handout http://ochlstudy.org/parent-hando ut.html
Count-the-Dot Audiogram Audibility: Count-the-Dots Minimal, Mild, Unilateral, Single-sided Deafness (MMUSSD) Educational Audiology Association (2017); School-Based Audiology Advocacy Series www.edaud.org Difficulties understanding speech both in ideal and in challenging listening environments such as the classroom setting (Crandell, 1993) and poorer performance on complex listening tasks (Lewis et al., 2014). For those with UHL, difficulties locating the direction of sounds (Bess, 1986). Increased risk of speech production errors, language delays and deficits especially in structural language (Tharpe, 2008; Walker et al., 2015; Winiger
et al., 2016). Phonological delays and difficulties with reading comprehension (Ross et al., 2008). Minimal, Mild, Unilateral, Single-sided Deafness (MMUSSD) Educational Audiology Association (2017); School-Based Audiology Advocacy Series www.edaud.org Low attention, lack of motivation, poor attention in class, and reduced class participation (Flexer, 1995; Porter et al., 2013) Behavioral problems associated with high internal stress such as noncompliance, aggression, impulsivity, and inflexibility. (Winiger et al., 2016). Strained communication with peers, difficulties making friends, and poorer peer relations (Tharpe, 2008; Winiger, et al., 2016).
Low self-esteem (Bess, Dodd-Murphy, & Parker, 1998; Winiger et al., 2016). Higher fatigue, increased listening effort, and stress levels as compared to peers (Bess, Gustafson, & Hornsby 2014; Tharpe, 2008; Lieu et al., 2012). Communic ation Education Technology ACCE SS Education Access: What does it mean to
you? Education ACCESS Cheryls definition: Accessible Education Instruction supports students abilities and knowledge Instructi on adjusted to
student s level Active participa tion Preteaching/ postteaching Learning occurs when there is knowledge of language and vocabulary, content is linked to experience or previous learning Challenges of Inclusion in Early Childhood
Inclusion in Early Childhood Education Programs U.S. Department of Health and Human Services & U.S. Department of Education (September 14, 2015). Policy Statement on Inclusion of Children with Disabilities in Early Childhood Programs Full communication access to all activities (sign/visual/auditory) Visually oriented environment Interactions with adults/peers who are deaf and hard of hearing or deaf/blind Language skills within 1-2 yrs of class Progress: 1 years growth in 1 year Least Restrictive Environment (LRE) Separate is not equal (Brown vs Board of Education) Can equal occur in general ed classroom? Is Least Restrictive Environment a Language Rich Environment?
Rights: IDEA & 504 IDEA - provides educational rights and benefits for children with disabilities Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE) o Audiology services o Assistive technology and assistive technology services o Routine checking of hearing aids and external component of surgically implanted devices o IEPs & Consideration of special factors 504 persons with qualified disabilities must be provided accommodations, does not require specially designed instruction, mitigating measure cannot exclude students
PART B DEVELOPMENT, REVIEW, AND REVISION OF IEP, Consideration of special factors 34CFR300.324(2) The IEP Team must(iv) Consider the communication needs of the child, and in the case of a child who is deaf or hard of hearing, consider the childs language and communication needs, opportunities for direct communications with peers and professional personnel in the childs language and communication mode, academic level, and full range of needs, including opportunities for direct instruction in the childs language and communication mode; (v) Consider whether the child needs assistive technology devices and services.
IDEA ADA (Title II) - 504 IDEA Communicat Schools must ion provide a Provisions FAPE designed to provide meaningful educational benefit through an IEP; special considerations [IDEA 300.324
(2) (iv-v)] ADA-Title II 504 Schools must ensure that communication with students with disabilities is as effective as communication for students without disabilitiesaffording an equal opportunity to gain the same benefit, or to reach the same level of achievement as that provided to others and to participate and enjoy the benefits of the districts services,
programs, and activities. Rights: ADA Effective Communication Equal to nondisabled peers Primary consideration given to requests of parents and students o Unless school can prove that a different aid or service is as effective to meet communication needs or o School can prove the aid or service would result in a fundamental alteration of undue administrative burden Provided in a timely manner Protect the privacy and independence of the individual Continuously evaluate students to ensure they are receiving effective communication Qualified interpreter is able to interpret as effectively,
accurately and impartially, both receptively and expressively, using any necessary specialized vocabulary. How are effective communication aids and services documented? Present Levels of Functioning Annual Goals 504 Plan Documentation of Disability
Accommodations, Auxiliary Aids & Services IEP Supports and Services Modifications and Accommodations Measurement of Progress IEP/504
Checklist PARC: Placement And Readiness Checklists The Student: Readiness Checklists General Education Inclusion Readiness (adapted from Nevins & Chute, 1996) Interpreted/Transliterated Education Readiness (adapted from Schick, 2004) Captioning/Transcribing Readiness Checklist Instructional Communication Access (adapted from Childrens Hospital of Boston, 2003) The Environment: Placement Checklists Preschool/Kindergarten Elementary Secondary
Communic ation Education Technology ACCE SS Technology Access: What does it look like? Technolog
y ACCESS Cheryls definition: Technology to Access Education Technology must be planned in advance and should be part of Connecti Universal Deisgn for Learning (UDL) vity to Hearing Assistan ce
Technolo gy Captioni ng classroo m/ instructi onal technolo gy & social media
Technology must be managed so that it is used appropriately and it is working consistently Beyond the Fitting Appointment: Patterns of Hearing Aid and FM System Use in the Classroom Davis, Gustafson, Hornsby, & Bess (AAA, 2015) FM Use N=26, grades 1-7 22/26 were consistent hearing aid users (85%) 6/22 (36%) of these were never observed using FM Personal & CADS
11.54 44.23 % % 44.23 % Consistent Variable Non-User What is the Problem? Student?
School/Teacher/Staff? Technology? Support? Knowledge? Orientation and Training? Why Do Students with Hearing Impairments Resist Wearing FM Amplification? Jennifer Franks Eastern Michigan University MA Thesis, 2008 Participants: 68 (45.3% return rate) 9 students, ages 8-18 5 parents
15 special educators 11 general educators 7 teachers of speech and language 8 audiologists 12 other personnel working with DHH students Development of Self, SelfConcept, Self-Determination, Self-Advocacy Development of Self: Who am I? Self-Identity: who I am as a person Deaf Identity:
how does my hearing status affect me Learning and accepting who I am Not ears Not an audiogram Not a freak Not retarded Just a
Development of Self What are my strengths? What are my challenges? What are my barriers? Who will aid me in overcoming my barriers? How do I interact with others? Social-Emotional Learning (SEL) Competency Clusters* Selfawareness Relationship Skills
Social-Emotional Learning Selfmanagement Social Awareness *Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning (CASEL) www.casel.org Responsibl e Decision
Making Relationship Skills Appropriat e social conversati on rules Social Communica tion Skills Social Relations hips &
Friendshi ps Social Cognitive Skills Perceiving & interpretin g situations Determini ng what to say
Executive Function Theory of Self-Determination Relatednes s Competenc y Autonomy Development of Self-Determination: The right to direct ones own life Students with SD skills have a stronger chance of being successful
in making the transition to adulthood, including employment and independence (Wehmeyer & Schwartz, 1997) Study: One year post-graduation, students with higher levels of selfdetermination in high school were more likely to be living outside the home, employed for pay and earning more per hour than those with lower levels of self-determination. Components of Self-Determination (University of IL at Chicago National Research & Training Center, 2002) Free will Personal agency Civil and human Self-direction Individual rights Freedom of choice
responsibility Independence A more pragmatic definition: (Martin & Marshall, 1996) A self-determined person: Sets goals Makes decisions Sees options Solves problems Speaks for oneself Understands what supports are needed for success Knows how to evaluate outcomes How do we facilitate Self-Determination?
Promote the developme nt of selfesteem Help children understand their hearing loss Promote choice making
Support exploration of possibilitie s Encoura ge problem solving Develop and understand the process of goal
setting and planning Promote reasona ble risk taking Evaluating outcomes of choices and problem solving solutions
Promote selfadvocac y Roadblocks to Self-Determination Roadblocks to SelfDetermination Difficulty acknowledging and/or accepting a difference Unprepared to disclose their disability Choose not to disclose Wait to disclose AFTER they have significant problems Anxious about a "new beginning" and do not want
to be labeled Examples of Failure Audiology Students who are not supported to use the technology Self-advocacy attempts that are thwarted by the teacher Parents who deny the need for, or do not support, hearing instrument technology School cultures that are not flexible to meet individual needs of students Technology that does not work
Masons IEP Report Video https://www.youtube.com/v/i9HNZQG-bIw Strategies and Solutions Tips for Promoting Self-Determination National Center on Secondary Education & Transition www.ncset.org 1. Promote choice making 2. Encourage exploration of possibilities 3. Promote reasonable risk taking 4. Encourage problem solving 5. Promote self-advocacy 6. Facilitate development of self-esteem
7. Develop goal setting and planning 8. Help youth understand their disabilities Parent to Parent Tips to Develop Self-Determination Skills Discuss strengths and weaknesses with your child Help them develop strategies to overcome barriers Set expectations for self-advocacy early and continue to expand as child gets older Share with the IEP team how your child functions at home and in the community Include self-detrmination and self-advocacy goals in the IEP Always include the childs input at IEP meetings; their involvement should increase each year so that the childs eventually represents his/her self to devlop goals, needs, and services
Know your rights and teach them to your child o What does IDEA mean? o What does ADA mean and how is it different from IDEA? 2. JUDICIOUS USE OF AMPLIFICATION Step 1. Potential Candidacy for HAT Hearing Loss | Auditory Processing Deficit | Learning Disability Auditory Neuropathy/Dys-synchrony Language Deficit | Attention Deficit | English Language Learner e h n t
o u h Yo p ro nd c i a M n e e ot ildr m h 1 e R r C h-2 A fo rt Reconsider
A i A AT B H om Counsel fr Monitor Review Documented evidence of listeningNo or learning problems? Yes
Step 2. Considerations [in and out of school] Acoustic environment Social/emotional Functional Support Yes ContraIndications? No Step 3. Device Selection Step 4. Fitting and Verification
Step 5. Implementation and Validation Reconsider Couns el Monito r Revie w Step 2. Considerations [in and out of school] Acoustic environment
Social/emotional Functional Support Ye s ContraIndications? Motivation: Student & Teachers Child & Family Self-Advocacy Social Acceptance Attention & Fatigue
Classroom Culture Self-image Family Support Considerations before fitting HAT: Classroom Listening Assessment Classroom Observation Acoustic Measurements Noise, RT, Critical Distance Questionnaires: Teacher: (CHAPS, L.I.F.E.) Student: (Classroom Participation
Questionnaire, L.I.F.E., Self-Assessment of Communication-A, Significant Other Assessment of Communication-A) Functional Assessment: Functional Listening Evaluation (FLE) Testimonials Ethan: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TMv5UuSAsDs Nicole (17): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mjTSp4fC-ws Audrey (15): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tqwKzvTOUms Audrey (18): https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B2y6mNHf9IWrR25jUnJ3Z0hvTlk/view Teen Stories using Roger https://www.phonak.com/us/en/hearing-loss/being-a-teenager-with-hearing -loss.html
Ethan: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TMv5UuSAsDs 3. Peer Group out of School Transitioning Hit It! Meeting Transition needs Hearing Impaired Teens Interacting Together! Meets quarterly Grades 612 Multiple schools in different areas Focus on self-advocacy Focus on Transition Activities for
IEP or Transition Plan Carrie Spangler, Ohio [email protected] 4. Resources Professionals: https://www.phonakpro.c om/us/en/resources/coun seling-tools/pediatric/gui de-to-access-planning/g uide-to-access-planning. html Consumers:
https://www.phonak.com/ us/en/support/children-an d-parents/planning-guidefor-teens.html Teens & Young Adults GAP is A Learning Guide: Self-Assessment Rights
Self-Advocacy Hearing Access Technology Activities Resources FOR: Parent Teachers & Professiona ls Ida Institute, Denmark
http://idainstitute.com/toolbox/ IDA Institute Transitions Manageme http:// idainstitute.com/ nt toolbox/ transitions_manag ement/ http://www.pepnet.org/map-it
H & V On-Line Module for Parents of Transition Age Students http://handsandvoices.org/hvcourses/ Topics included in this module: 1. Laws and Key Information Parents Need to Know about the Transition Process 2. From Parent Advocacy to Student Advocacy 3. Technology Transitions 4. The Parenting Aspects of Transition 5. Strategies to Assist the Process of Transition Each topic in the module includes: 6. Learning Objectives 7. Activities
8. Topical Readings 9. Additional Resources 10.Evaluation This Hands & Voices training module was made possible through a project of the Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center on Technology for Individuals who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing, funded by the National Institute on Disability, Tools for Practice Assessment: Questionnaires/Self-Assessments Classroom Listening Assessment Self-Advocacy Assessment Guidelines:
AAA HAT Guidelines (www.audiology.org ) Resources: www.successforkidswithhearingloss.co m Guide to Access Planning (GAP) https://www.phonakpro.com/us/en/resource s/counseling-tools/pediatric/guide-to-access -planning/guide-to-access-planning.html Ida Institute Tool Box
My World Living Well Transitions Management H&V Transition for Parents http://handsandvoices.org/hvcourses/ . Self-Advocacy Curricula C.O.A.C.H. Self-Advocacy & Transition Skills for Secondary Students who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing, Lynn Price Wehmeyer, M. et al (2000). Promoting Causal Agency: The Self-Determined Learning Model of Instruction. Exceptional Children 66(4),
439-453. Knowledge is Power, Mississippi Bend Area Education Agency, EAA Self-Advocacy for Students who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing, K. English, GAP CD Audiology SelfAdvocacy Checklists (Johnson & Spangler, 2013) Teacher Forms Elementary Middle School High School (Student) Available in Guide to Access
Planning or www.adevantage.com EAA: Input Requested https://www.surveymmonkey.com/r/WLSYC7K www.edaud.org Supporting Student who are Deaf and Hard of Hearing: Shared and Suggested Roles of Educational Audiologists, Teachers of the Deaf and Hard of Hearing, and Speech-Language Pathologists A checklist to discuss and distribute Learning Outcomes
1. Differentiate between self-determination and selfadvocacy. 2. Describe a strategy for supporting families and their children as they move from preschool to adulthood. 3. Discuss strategies for implementing self-determination and self-advocacy goals into the IEP.
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