The First Americans

The First Americans

THE FIRST AMERICANS UNIT 2 PART 1 Human Settlement in the Americas By studying the physical remains, scientists are piecing together the story of the first Americans. The science of studying the physical remains of the past is called archeology. According to Apache legend, we know that the first humans to enter North and South America slowly spread, across the land.

We know this because early peoples left behind a trail of evidence, such as burial mounds, stone cities, and pottery 2 The first American left no written records to tell us where they came from. Scientists have found evidence that suggests the first people reached the Americas sometime during the late ice age. 3

1. THE LAST ICE AGE: Between 20,000 and 40,000 years ago during the last Ice Age, glaciers covered a large part of the Northern Hemisphere (North America, Europe, and Northern Asia). Water level in oceans decreased due to increase in size of glaciers. Land was exposed in Bering Strait between Asia and North America. Land bridge is known as Beringia. About 750 miles wide. THE LAST ICE AGE

CRQ: When humans first began arriving in the Americas, how did they get the food that they needed to survive? - Migrated

from the cold climate to the warm climate - Followed the food source of animals across the

2. EARLY AMERICAN MIGRATION: Herds of animals migrated over land bridge. Groups of human nomads followed herds. Over thousands of years, early Americans migrated to all parts of the Americas. CRQ: Why is it difficult to prove how humans came to live in the

Americas? -Early humans did not know how to write, therefore, they left no written records such as books, journals, or articles. -Since early humans did know how to write, archeologists and historians have to rely on artifacts to learn about early humans.

1. What is the title of this map? 2. What 2 Historical Circumstances led the humans to first migrate into the Americas?

TTQA - Migrated from the cold climate to the warm climate - Followed the food source of animals across the land bridge to the americas 9 ANIMALS THEY HUNTED:

Wooly mammoth. Bear. Bison. Deer. Anything they could catch and eat.

2. EARLY AMERICAN MIGRATION : CRQ 1: What did the hunter wear for clothing? - Skins & Furs CRQ 2: What type of weapon did the hunter have?

- Stone & Wood Spears CRQ 3: In what region and present day country did the Hunter originate from? - Skins & Furs 2. EARLY AMERICAN MIGRATION According to many anthropologists, a land bridge

during the Ice Age allowed migration between which two continents? A.South America and North America B.North America and Europe C.Asia and North America D.Europe and Asia 2. EARLY AMERICAN MIGRATION : CRQ 4: How far from their

original home did they travel? Where was his original home? CRQ 5: What did hunters do after they reached North America? FARMING:

Squash Beans Corn (Maize) HARRYS STORY . What is one way that we know that

creatures like the woolly mammoth and mastodon really existed thousands of years ago? . What is the term for the scientists who dig up and study the fossil remains of early

animals and humans? HARRYS STORY 3.What was one weapon that early humans hunted with? 4. What was one thing that early humans lived in? HARRYS STORY

5. What kinds of tools and weapons did early humans use? 6. What type of

house would a nomadic hunting family live in? 7. How did early animals and humans cross over

from Asia into North America? HARRYS STORY 8.Where did the name Indians come

from? 9. What happened to the land bridge when the Ice Age ended? TRIBES THING LINK Culturally diverse Native Americans

shared several characteristics: 1 They lived in extended family groups called clans. 2 Clans identified with spirits of powerful animals.

3 American Indians believed powerful spiritual forces were part of nature. PEOPLE OF THE WEST Great Basin-very dry and little water

Utes and Shoshones hunted and gathered Had few items (digging basket, tools, weapons) Plateau-lived between the Rocky Mts and the Cascades Mts. Hunted and gathered Winter-lived in dirt houses Summer lived in temporary houses Nez Perces adopted ways of the Great Plains people

PEOPLE OF THE WEST (CONT) California -Coastal people fished Northern valleys -people hunted and gathered Desert -lived like the people of the Great Basin PEOPLE OF THE SOUTHWEST

Pueblos (Hopis and Zunis) Built adobes and farmed corn, beans, squash Religion-reflected the importance of farming Traced their family lines through their mother

Apaches and Navajos hunted and gathered Apaches and Navajos attacked the Pueblos in search of food Navajos later accepted the Pueblo way of life but Apaches continued to hunt and gather South West Native Americans were farmers. They held special ceremonies to insure a good rainfall and a good harvest. In the Southwest, held

ceremonies with masked dancers who represented spirits called Kachinas. The native Americans believed that the Kachinas had the power to bring good harvests 26 PEOPLE OF THE GREAT PLAINS

Built homes out of sod Lived between Rocky Mts and Mississippi River Farmed and herded animals close to water In the summer they followed the buffalo Ruling council were the best hunters Tamed wild horses in 1700s Centuries ago great grasslands extended across the Great Plains from the Rocky Mountains to the Mississippi River. There were few trees on the Great Plains. The land and was flat. People from the

plains built their homes from sod (dirt) or grass. They also used buffalo hides to make cone shaped tents called teepees. These people planted beans, squash and sunflowers. They hunted Buffalo, elk, deer, and big horned sheep. People of the Great Plains captured and trained horses for riding. Horses were not found up North. The Plains people became skilled riders. 28 NORTH

INUITS-PEOPLE OF THE ARTIC Summer collected driftwood for tools and shelter Winter built igloos and used seal oil for lamps Hunted seals, walrus, and whales RELIGION-connected to natural world Cultures of the Far North and Plateau Regions In the far north, or in the Arctic the temperatures drop to 30 degrees below Fahrenheit (-30.) Snow was on the ground for most of the year. In the Arctic there

are frozen seas and icy frozen plains. In this land the Native American people called the Inuits lived. 30 PEOPLE Good food supply OF THE NORTHWEST Salmon skeletons thrown back in the water

Forest was used to build houses and canoes Family rank based on how much they owned Cultures of the Northwest In the Northwest the climate was better. Native American had warmer climates temperatures than the Inuits. The Northwest Native Americans had plenty of fish, lumber from trees to make homes and boats.

They had plenty of animals to hunt. Because the land was plentiful they usually stayed in one place for their entire lives. 32 PEOPLE OF THE SOUTHEAST

Home to most Native Americans Good climate farmed land and built homes from trees Men hunted and women farmed, weeded, and harvested Religion closely linked to farming Natchez farmed hunted, and fished along the Gulf of Mexico and they came up with 13 month calendar. Religion centered around the sun.

Cultures of the Southeast In the Southeast the climate was also good. Many tribes inhabited the southeastern region of North America. Among them were the Natchez and Cherokees. The Natchez ruler was known as the Great Sun and was worshiped like a God. The rulers feet never touched the ground. He

walked on mats. 34 PEOPLE OF THE EASTERN WOODLANDS The most powerful group was the Iroquois Builders of the long house where (parents, grandparents, aunts, uncles) Women owned all property and were in charge of planting and harvesting A man moved into his wifes family home

5 nations (Seneca, Mohawk, Oneida, Cayuga, and Onondaga)Tuscarora Constant warfare until 1570 when an alliance called the LEAGUE OF THE IROQUOIS 36 37 38


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