The Evolution of Egyptian Pyramid Construction

The Evolution of Egyptian Pyramid Construction

The Evolution of Egyptian Pyramid Construction Mastaba Mastaba

House of eternity Traced back to Pharaoh Aha (2686 BCE) Designed as protection for the mummy

Tombs carved into the bedrock and covered with mud bricks with enclosures on the sides Early mastabas not good as sand would blow away and bodies were eaten by jackals

Djosers Step Pyramid at Saqqara Djosers Step Pyramid at Saqqara 2650 BCE

Pharaoh Djoser was 2nd Old Kingdom Imhotep was his brilliant Vizier/Architect First major stone building (limestone) Symbolic meaning: stone immortalizes

Djoser, preserving him from slow erosion of time Layers of mastabas placed on top of each other

6 steps (layers) rise to height of 60 metres Snefrus Step Pyramid at Meidum Snefrus Step Pyramid at Meidum

2613-2589 BCE Snefru is Khufus father First above ground burial chamber Ceiling bears the weight of the

pyramid Interior chambers never finished But innovation in corbelled ceiling First attempt at a true pyramid failed

as smooth facing stones slipped off the sides of the seven layers (and were later removed as late as the 19th century) Snefrus Bent Pyramid at Dashur

Snefrus Bent Pyramid at Dashur First attempt at the classic shape

Built on gravel and not solid bedrock Inside it is very dangerous because burial chamber is held together with huge cedar beams Much larger casing stones used Casing blocks inclined inward

At nearly 50% complete, the internal chambers and the corners started to crack Unprecedented two burial chambers,

each with a separate entrance Snefrus Red Pyramid Snefrus Red Pyramid First

true pyramid 3rd times a charm for Snefru! Built

on a smaller scale and at a 43 degree angle to reduce the time of construction Mortuary chapel was now moved to eastern side from traditional northern side

Great Pyramid of Khufu Great Pyramid of Khufu Designed

by Hemuinu, Khufus cousin Built for 4th Dynasty Pharaoh Khufu Completed around 2560 BCE

Base built on cardinal points of a compass Pyramid of Khafra Pyramid of Khafra

Khafra is the son of Khufu (25582532 BCE) Second largest of the pyramids Illusion of being the largest due to higher elevation of land (10 metres

higher) Made from limestone Steeper angle

Pyramid of Menkaure Pyramid of Menkaure Succeeded Khafra as Phraraoh (c.

2620 BC2480 BCE) Constructed of limestone and granite There are three subsidiary pyramids associated with Menkaure's pyramid, possibly for

his Queens

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