The Endocrine System

The Endocrine System

ENDOCRINE GL ANDS SECTION 13.2 ENDOCRINE GLANDS The nervous and endocrine systems work with each other to maintain homeostasis in the body. The hypothalamus, a part of the nervous system, and the pituitary gland, a part of the endocrine system; control many critical physiological processes in the body. These include: Metabolism

Kidney function Appetite Mental alertness Reproduction Growth and development The hypothalamus and the pituitary gland both release hormones which influence the activity of other hormone producing glands. The hypothalamus is

connected to the pituitary gland by a network of blood vessels called a portal system. This allows the nervous system to exert its control over the hormones produced in the pituitary gland and other endocrine THE PITUITARY GLAND

The pituitary gland is referred to as the master gland because it produces hormones which control the production of hormones in other endocrine glands. These hormones are called tropic hormones. The pituitary gland produces a hormone called the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and this hormone stimulates the thyroid gland to produce the thyroid hormone. The pituitary gland is made up of two glands: 1. The anterior pituitary gland

2. The posterior pituitary gland THE ANTERIOR PITUITARY This lobe of the pituitary gland produces five types of endocrine hormones: human growth hormones (HGH) four tropic hormones TSH

ACTH FSH/LH Prolactin HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE (HGH) This hormone regulates growth and development of the body. It is also called somatotropin. This hormone causes the body to grow and develop, including: Increases absorption of

calcium from the intestines Increases cell division and development Stimulating protein synthesis and lipid metabolism HGH, CONTD The half life of HGH is only 20 hours. HGH triggers the production of growth factors in the liver and other tissues.

The level of HGH in the body decreases with age. It is thought that the features of aging such as smaller muscle mass and wrinkles is due to the small amount of this hormone. If levels of HGH is low during childhood, a condition called pituitary dwarfism may occur. PITUITARY DWARFISM People with this disorder have a short stature with normal length arms and legs.

Some treatment involved for these individuals are: Giving the dwarf child HGH which has been extracted from cadavers. Inserting sections of DNA, which are responsible for HGH production, into bacteria. These bacteria then produce HGH as a waste product, this HGH is then used to treat dwarfism. GIGANTISM

If too much HGH is produced during childhood than a condition called gigantism occurs. Individuals with this disorder have abnormally long skeleton bones. Treatment for this disorder include: Surgical removal of a tumor from the pituitary gland

PROLACTIN This hormone, which is also produced by the anterior pituitary gland, stimulates the development of mammary gland tissue and milk production (lactogenesis). The hypothalamus regulates the production of prolactin. The hypothalamus secretes a hormone called dopamine which inhibits the production of prolactin. In late pregnancy, an increase in the hormone estrogen will stimulate prolactin production.

Also, after a child is born breast feeding stimulates nerve endings in the nipples which stimulates the hypothalamus to release prolactin secreting hormones. THE POSTERIOR PITUITARY This gland is made up of secretory nerve cells which were produced in the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus

makes two hormones called anti diuretic hormone (ADH) and oxytocin which are stored in the posterior pituitary gland until needed. ANTIDIURETIC HORMONE (ADH) This hormone has two major roles in the human body: It regulates the levels of sodium in the bloodstream.

ADH is also secreted from the pituitary gland in response to decreased blood pressure which results from loss of blood due to torn or damaged blood vessels. If the body does not produce enough ADH, a disorder called diabetes insipidus may result. This disorder can be treated by giving the patient the ADH hormone. If the body produces too much ADH, the kidneys will begin to retain more water and produce a concentrated urine. This will cause an increase in the volume of the blood and a decrease in the bloods sodium concentration. (increasing blood pressure) OXYTOCIN

This hormone plays an important role both during and after childbirth in women. It triggers muscle contractions during childbirth and stimulates the release of milk from the breasts after birth. It has been suggested that the secretion of oxytocin causes pleasure to the mother during contact with the newborn. This arouses feelings of strong affection which creates a mother child bond. THE THYROID &

PARATHYROID GLANDS A thyroid gland is a butterfly shaped gland located below the larynx in the neck that produces the hormone thyroxine. The thyroid gland contains four small glands called parathyroid glands The anterior pituitary gland produces a hormone called thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). TSH stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroxine. Thyroxine is a molecule that contains four atoms of iodine. It causes an increase in the metabolism and

oxygen consumption of the heart, skeletal muscle, liver and kidney. The thyroid gland uses about 30% of the iodine in the blood which is used to make thyroxine. HYPERTHYROIDISM Hyperthyroidism is an excess of thyroxin production. One type of hyperthyroidism is

Graves disease. This occurs when antibodies attach to TSH receptors on thyroid cells. This causes the cells of the thyroid gland to continually produce thyroxine. HYPERTHYROIDISM Excess thyroxine causes a number of problems such

as: Enlargement of the thyroid gland (goiter) Muscle weakness Increased metabolism Excessive heat production Sweating Warm skin Increased appetite, but weight loss Bulging or protruding eyes.

How is hyperthyroidism diagnosed? Blood tests. Thyroid ultrasound. Thyroid scan. How is hyperthyroidism treated? Surgical removal of the thyroid gland. Thyroid blocking drugs. Treatment with radioactive iodine. Injections of thyroid hormone. What are the complications of hyperthyroidism? Heart problems

Osteoporosis Pregnancy problems HYPOTHYROIDISM Hypothyroidism is a decrease in thyroxine output which is caused by iodine deficiency. Symptoms of hypothyroidism include: - Reduced metabolism - Reduced tolerance to cold temperatures - Decreased heart rate - Decreased appetite, but weight gain - Decreased mental capacity

- Weakness and fatigue - Poor physical development HYPOTHYROIDISM Standard treatment for hypothyroidism involves daily use of the synthetic thyroid hormone which restores adequate hormone levels, reversing the signs

and symptoms of hypothyroidism. THE PANCREAS The pancreas is a small gland located near the small intestine. It plays an essential role in converting the food we eat into fuel for the body's cells. The pancreas has two main functions: an exocrine function that helps in digestion and an endocrine function that regulates blood sugar. The pancreas produces two non steroid hormones

called: glucagon insulin Insulin is a hormone which forces the body to store excess nutrients. Examples of this include; glycogen (starch) which is stored in the liver, fat which is stored in adipose tissue and protein which is stored in muscle tissue. Glucagon has an opposite influence on the body. It triggers the release of glucose, fatty acids and

amino acids from cells back into the bloodstream. BLOODGLUCOSE REGULATION P. 438 DIABETES Diabetes mellitus (or diabetes) is a chronic, lifelong condition that affects your body's ability to use the energy found in food. Diabetes is a problem which can arise in the

pancreas. There are three major types of diabetes: type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes gestational diabetes Type I Diabetes An autoimmune disorder in which the bodys own immune system attacks the pancreas because it no longer recognizes the pancreas as belonging to the body. Once the attack begins, the body loses its ability to produce insulin over night.

Type II Diabetes Occurs in adults over the age of 40. Ninety percent of all diabetics have type 2 diabetes. In this case the body either produces too little insulin or the body fails to recognize the insulin which is produced GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST Diabetes is diagnosed using a glucose tolerance test.

TYPE 1 DIABETES Type I is caused by lack of insulin production in pancreas Treated with insulin injections and rigid blood monitoring. Since insulin is a protein it would be digested if taken orally Must monitor both hypoglycemia (need glucagon or glucose) and hyperglycemia (need insulin) Researching: islet transplants, gene therapy TYPE 2 DIABETES

Type 2 is caused by decreased insulin production, or too much glucose produced by the liver (not enough compensation by pancreas), insulin resistance Managed through physical activity and meal planning and may require medications and/or insulin to assist your body in controlling blood glucose more effectively. Gestational diabetes, during pregnancy, mother develops symptoms at a greater risk for type II later in life PINEAL GLAND

The pineal gland is a small, cone shaped structure located in the center of the brain. The pineal gland produces two hormones; cortisol and melatonin. The production of these hormones follows a daily 24 hour cycle which is referred to as a circadian rhythm. Cortisol hormone production is greatest at night and peaks just before a person wakes. The level of the hormone decreases during the daytime. Melatonin is also produced in high amounts during the night time and decreases during the day.

SEASONAL AFFECTIVE DISORDER This disorder, also known as SAD, is a condition that produces symptoms of depression and an overwhelming desire for sleep. It affects 20 percent of the people in northern countries. It only affects a small population of the residents of southern countries. When levels of melatonin are above normal, people can develop the symptoms of SAD Exposure to bright lights for 2 to 3 hours each day can lessen the symptoms of this disorder.

THYMUS GLAND The thymus gland is located in the upper chest cavity between the left and right lobes of the lungs. This gland produces a hormone called thymosin which stimulates the production and

maturation of lymphocytes to T cells. This gland disappears

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