The effect of musical characteristics on a listener's Valence ...

The effect of musical characteristics on a listener's Valence ...


Relationships between characteristics and interest Survey distribution Paired T-Test Results RESEARCH QUESTION Characteristics affect listener Characteristics Rhythm, Mode, Timbre

Listeners Perception Valence, Arousal, Preference/Interest DEFINITIONS Valence: mood sad or happy Arousal: low energy, high energy Rhythm: tempo fast vs. slow Mode: key major vs. minor

Timbre: tone/ sound of instrument PURPOSE OF STUDY Music is ubiquitous Causes of music interest Characteristics of music? Used to push other agendas? First stepping stone

BACKGROUND RESEARCH BAILES, 2012 Pop = reactions and thoughts (Australia) Hypothesis Perceived intensity and flatness Attracted to intensity Flatness related to valence

BAILES, 2012 Hypothesis Part 2 Outside distractions and previous exposure Conclusion Connection between music and interpretation Musicians and Non-musicians focus differently

SCHUBERT, 2004 New South Wales - Australia Musics mood vs. Listeners mood Musician status, volume, and tempo Volume and tempo 60% of participants emotional arousal SIU-LAN TAN ET AL., 2007 Michigan

Musics emotion and films emotion Played music before and after Emotions: sad, happy, anger, fear Both before and after effective HYPOTHESIS Teenagers Prefer faster, high energy music

MATERIALS AND METHODS Young adults Survey and music source Everyday environment Preferably quiet MATERIALS AND METHODS CONT. Song genres list

Simple Random Sample (SRS) song pairs Distribute In-person and online Questions during/after each song RESULTS AND DISCUSSION AROUSAL AVERAGES

Song Pair Arousal Averages 6 5 Mean 4

3 2 1 0 Timbre Pair 1

Timbre Pair 2 Mode Pair 1 Mode Pair 2 Song Pairs Tempo Pair 1

Tempo Pair 2 AROUSAL RESULTS Timbre Pair 1 p-value = .0001 Timbre Pair 2 = not significant Tempo Pair 1 p-value = .0021 Tempo Pair 2 p-value = .0006 Mode = not significant

VALENCE AVERAGES Song Pair Valence Averages 7 6 5 Mean

4 3 2 1 0 Timbre Pair 1 Timbre Pair 2

Mode Pair 1 Mode Pair 2 Song Pairs Tempo Pair 1

Tempo Pair 2 VALENCE RESULTS Timbre, Mode, and Tempo significant Similar to Siu-Lan Tan results (Tan et al., 2007) Mood affected the by combination Ominous = organ + minor key + slow Excited = piano + major key + fast

PREFERENCE AVERAGES Song Pair Preference Averages 4.9 4.8 4.7 4.6 Mean

4.5 4.4 4.3 4.2 4.1 4 3.9 Timbre Pair 1

Timbre Pair 2 Mode Pair 1 Mode Pair 2 Song Pairs

Tempo Pair 1 Tempo Pair 2 PREFERENCE RESULTS Most affected by timbre P-values = .0013 and .0023 Make or break interest

Mode could have an effect Mode Pair 1 p-value = .0482 HYPOTHESIS Hypothesis supported Prefer faster, high energy music Affected by perceived emotion (Tan et al., 2007) Tempo greatest component to arousal (Schubert, 2004) Liking affects perception (Bailes, 2012)

MAJOR FINDINGS Musical characteristics affect perception Timbre most effective Especially Arousal, Valence, and Preference Valence and Arousal closely related EXPLANATION FOR FINDINGS Perception affects reality

Popular music generally high energy Like to feel happy PROBLEMS AND IMPROVEMENTS Data collection uniform Surrounding environment unpredictable Delayed data collection FUTURE STUDIES

Preferences affect values and beliefs? What do lyrics contribute? Lyrics or instrumental? Which has more power? VS. IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Music appeal is not random Increase music sales Popular = High energy and Happy ADDING TO THE FIELD Looking at teenagers Perception affects listeners interest Enhancing existing data

INTERNATIONAL RELEVANCE Marketing tool Customized music Predict future trends Increase sales ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Family and Friends Mentor Dr. Norgaard

Teachers Participants REFERENCES Bailes, F. & Dean, R.T. (2012). Comparative time series analysis of Perceptual responses to electroacoustic music. University of California Press, 29 (4), 359-375. Retrieved from preferences_channels .pdf

Bogt,T.T., Raaijmakers, Q., Vollebergh, W.A.M., Wel, F.V., Sikkema, P. (2003). Youngsters and their musical taste: Musical styles and taste groups. The Netherlands Journal of Social Sciences, 39 (1), 35-52. Retrieved from _Taste_Musical_Styles_and_Taste_Groups Schubert, E. (2004). Modeling perceived emotion with continuous musical features. Music Perception: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 21 (4), 561-585. Retrieved from:

REFERENCES Tan, S.L., Spackman, M.P., Bezdek, M.A. (2007). Viewers interpretations of film characters emotions: Effects of presenting film music before or after a character is shown. Music Perception: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 25 (2), 135152. Retrieved from

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