The Crusades -

The Crusades -

e t i r W Quick The Holy Roman Empire was neither holy, nor Roman, nor an empire because

A. The emperors were not crowned by the popes B. The byzantine emperors did not acknowledge the Holy Roman empire C. The people who lived there did not practice Christianity D. It did not restore imperial unity to Western Europe Which one of the following does not describe the crusades? A. The campaigns showed European military superiority to

Muslim armies B. One of the crusades conquered Constantinople instead of recapturing Palestine. C. Crusaders brought back many Muslim ideas including agricultural products back to Europe D. Crusaders traded eagerly with merchants in the Eastern Mediterranean s

e g A e l d d i M

h g Hi European Middle Ages (Ds) 0Early / Post-Classical 0the Dark Ages disorder, disunity,

despair 0High Middle Ages (Cs) 0Rise of crown, commerce & cities 0Late Middle Ages 03 disasters: church scandal,100 years war & BLACK DEATH Post-Classical/ Early Middle Ages

0550 900 CE fragmented & chaotic 0Catholic church only source of intellectual development & literacy 0Church power 0Manorialism 0Feudalism

High Middle Ages Advancements 0primogeniture 0Holy Roman Emperor 0Capetian kings 0Norman conquest 0More stability

10 century out of the ruins of the th Frankish empire 0W. - France: 0 new hereditary monarchy

established: 0Hugh Capet Capetian dynasty E. - German States: Holy Roman Empire 0Develops as an

elected emperor under the Pope Greater Stability Limited Government Control 0Church main authority 0Aristocrats vs. monarchical

power /Magna Carta 01st English parliament 0Three key estates 0Conflicts church & Kings The Crusad es

Overview 0 The Crusades were a series of religious wars fought between Christians and Muslims 0 Fought over control of the city of Jerusalem 0 Though eight Crusades occurred between 1096 and 1300, only the first four hold true historical significance

Causes of the Crusades 0 Muslims controlled Palestine and threatened Constantinople 0 Pope wanted to reclaim Jerusalem and reunite Christendom (which had split in 1054) 0 Kings and religious leaders wanted to

rid themselves of quarrelsome knights 0 European merchants looked to take control of Muslim-held trade routes in the Mediterranean 0 Crusaders were assured of a place in heaven The Effects of the Crusades 0 Increased contact between the

Europeans and Muslims led to: 0 Revival of the Mediterranean Sea Lanes 0 Europeans were introduced to goods from Southwest Asia: 0 Spices, ivory, oranges, gun-

powder, East Asian foods 0 Islamic forms of math and science entered European society 0 Algebra, optics, advanced engineering (stone fortifications)

0 Decline of Constantinople The West Expands Reasons: 0Pop growth 0Memory of Rome 0Religious zeal Reconquista of Spain

Vikings Crusades 0cultural diffusion & trade Western Civilization 0Christianity was unifying element 0Little classical

thought before 1000 0Crusades classical works 0Aristotle especially Trends in the West food production population strong monarchies

travel trade towns urban culture Rise of Trade, Towns, & Cities

Role of Italy 0Italian towns had not decayed to same degree as rest of W. Europe 0Italys location trade cities 0Crusades resulted in trade of goods luxury items from the east & middle east 0Connection between Mediterranean

trade system & rest of Europe n a l F s r

de 0Belgium and N. France 0Textile capital of Europe; 0woolen industry 0Center of trade in European Northern Coast: across France, down Rhine River and across English Channel

Hanseatic League 0Trading towns along Baltic Coast & North Eastern Europe 070 member cities 0Established permanent trading routes 0Traded in fur, timber, fish, grain

Fairs Champagne (France) had the best known fairs Role of Medieval Fairs 0Goods from all over world were exchanged

(at first by barter then by money) at fairs 0Trade items from East: spices, medicine, perfume, dyes, gems, silk, cotton, linen, gold, silver, ivory 0Trade items from Middle East: textiles, rugs, grains, fruit 0Exchange of ideas! Development of Money Economy

0led to decline of feudal system & emergence of market economy 0Capital: wealth earned, accumulated and invested 0Coinage silver, then gold 0Banking - Italian banca = money changers table

0European traders less wealthy than Islamic counterparts Growth of Cities and Towns Resulted from: 0the revival of trade 0serfs leaving manor

for opportunities 0strong monarchies Developed Where? Near well-traveled roads, transfer points or waterways Guilds 0set quality standard

0loans to members 0ill / disabled members 0Protected businesses 0set prices /conditions 0prohibited competition 0supervised training Universitie s

Develop 0Begin as learning guilds (an association of people organized for the purpose of learning and teaching) 0Limited to specific subjects (ex: theology, law, medicine) 0Academic degrees develop (B.A., M.A. PhD)

Scholasticism 0Intellectual movement that attempted to reconcile faith & reason 0Faith = Church teachings 0Reason = Aristotles logic

0Scholastic philosophers s a n i u q A

s a m o h T 013th century Italian priest 0Wrote Summa Theologica 0reason was Gods gift

0church doctrine could be supported through logic 0Proposed 5 logic proofs of the existence of God... Vernacular 0Vernacular: language of everyday

speech 0people spoke the language that had developed in their own countries from Latin or German roots (Eng, Fr, Ger, Ital, Span) 0each kingdom a distinct identity 0literature more accessible Vernacular Writers

0Dante Alighieri: The Divine Comedy, epic poem in Italian that describes an imaginary journey through hell, purgatory and heaven s 9 e

l c r i c Geoffrey Chaucer Canterbury Tales 0English narrative poems that described a group of

pilgrims who tell stories to amuse one another on their way to Thomas Becketts shrine Gothic Architecture 0Characteristics: walls high & thin, flying buttresses supported weight of roof,

large stained-glass windows, pointed arches 0Symbolism: 0ground plan in shape of a cross 0with high walls and pointed arches, everything appeared to be reaching towards heaven Flying

Buttresses Clerest ory Windo ws Seville s Cathed

ral Toledo s Cathed ral MUST KNOW: Gothic vs.

Romanesqu e Illuminat ed Page The Rise of a Middle Class leads to the decline of Medieval Feudalism

The kings will use the Middle Class to weaken the nobility / aristocracy revival of trade will lead to the more rapid exchange of everything including the Black Death

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