The Brief Early History of the New World- North America Starting from 400-1577 400-900 Toltec (Olmec) civilization develops in present day Mexico The Olmec may have been the first civilization in the Western Hemisphere to develop a writing system The ancient Olmec civilization is now considered to be one of the earliest great civilizations in Mesoamerica. The ancient Olmec
civilization is believed to have been centered around the southern Gulf Coast of Mexico 981 Eric the Red founds the first Nordic settlement in Greenland Erik returned to Iceland and brought with him stories of "Greenland". Erik deliberately gave the land a more appealing name than "Iceland" in order to lure potential settlers. "people would be attracted to go there if it had a favorable name". many people especially
"those Vikings living on poor land in Iceland" and those that had suffered a "recent famine" became convinced that Greenland held great opportunity. 1000 Vikings visited coastline of Newfoundland Vikings would be the first Europeans to explore the east coast of North America. It is probable that the natives described by the Norsemen as skraelings were Beothuk people of Labrador and Newfoundland. The first conflicts between Europeans and native peoples may have occurred
around 1006 attempted to establish permanent settlements along the coast of Newfoundland. According to the Icelandic sagas, the native skraelings responded so ferociously that the newcomers eventually withdrew and apparently gave up their original intentions to settle 1327 Aztecs established Mexico City The Aztecs, who probably originated as a nomadic tribe in northern Mexico, arrived in Mesoamerica around the beginning of the 13th century. From their magnificent capital
city, Tenochtitlan, the Aztecs emerged as the dominant force in central Mexico. Developed an intricate social, political, religious and commercial organization that brought many of the region's city-states under their control by the 15th century. 1492 Christopher Columbus discovered the Americas The explorer Christopher Columbus made four trips across the Atlantic Ocean from Spain: in 1492, 1493, 1498 and 1502. He was determined to find a direct water route west from
Europe to Asia, but he never did. Instead, he accidentally stumbled upon the Americas. Though he did not really discover the New World-millions of people already lived there--his journeys marked the beginning of centuries of transAtlantic conquest and colonization. 1510 Spain began settlements in Jamaica The Spanish settled in Jamaica in 1509 and held the island against many privateer raids from their main city, now called Spanish Town, which served as capital of Jamaica from its founding in 1534 until 1872.
In 1655 Jamaica was conquered by the English, although the Spanish did not relinquish their claim to the island until 1670 1519 Hernando Cortes defeated the Aztecs The Spaniards were greeted with great honor, and Corts seized the opportunity, taking Montezuma hostage so that he might govern the empire through him. When he returned to Tenochtitln in June, he found the garrison under siege from the Aztecs, who had rebelled after the subordinate whom Corts left in command of the city massacred several Aztec chiefs, and the population on the
brink of revolt. Montezuma was killed in the fighting in Aztec reports by the Spaniards, and in Spanish reports by an Aztec mob bitter at Montezuma's subservience to Spanish rule. 1534 Jacques Cartier charts Gulf of St. Lawrence In 1534, France's King Francis I authorized the navigator Jacques Cartier (1491-1557) to lead a voyage to the New World in order to seek gold and other riches, as well as a new route to Asia. Cartier's three expeditions along the St. Lawrence River
would later enable France to lay claim to the lands that would become Canada. 1565 Spanish founded Saint Augustine, Florida In early September 1565, Aviles founded San Augustin on the Florida coast, which would later grow into Saint Augustine-the oldest city in North America. The first slaves in the territory that we now regard as the United States were brought to St. Augustine on the day it was founded by Pedro Menndez de Avils on
September 8, 1565 1577 Sir Francis Drake explores Pacific Ocean coastlines Sent by Queen Elizabeth II to South America in 1577, Drake anchored near today's San Francisco and claimed the surrounding land, which he called New Albion, for Queen Elizabeth He returned home via the Pacific and became the first Englishman to circumnavigate the globe; the queen rewarded him with a knighthood
1585 English colonists settled on Roanoke Island, Virginia 1607 Jamestown, Virginia settlement established 1608 Quebec founded by Samuel de Champlain 1609 Henry Hudson explored New York Bay and Hudson River 1612 French explorers discovered Lake Huron 1616 Smallpox devastates Native Americans 1620 Pilgrims arrived on Mayflower at Plymouth, MA 1587 English colonists settled on Roanoke Island, Virginia Still a mystery http:// www.history.co m/videos/myste
ry-roanoke#my stery-roanoke 1607 Jamestown, Virginia settlement established On May 14, 1607, a group of roughly 100 members of a joint venture called the Virginia Company founded the first permanent English settlement in North America on the banks of the James River. Famine, disease and conflict with local Native American tribes in the first two years brought Jamestown to the brink of
failure before the arrival of a new group of settlers and supplies in 1610 Tobacco became Virginia's first profitable export, and a period of peace followed the marriage of colonist John Rolfe to Pocahontas, the daughter of an Algonquian chief. 1608 Quebec founded by Samuel de Champlain On July 3, 1608, Champlain landed at the "point of Quebec" and set about fortifying the area by the erection of three main wooden buildings, each two stories tall, that he collectively
called the "Habitation", with a wooden stockade and a moat 12 feet (4 m) wide surrounding them. This was the very beginning of Quebec City. Gardening, exploring, and fortifying this place became great passions of Champlain for the rest of his life. 1609 Henry Hudson explored New York Bay and Hudson River Hudson embarked on a third voyage to the New World this time on behalf of the Dutch East India Company--in 1609
Hudson's ships sailed up a great river (which would later bear his name) but turned back when they determined it was not the channel they sought. On a fourth and final voyage, undertaken for England in 1610-11, Hudson spent months drifting through the vast Hudson Bay and eventually fell victim to a mutiny by his crew. Hudson's discoveries laid the groundwork
for Dutch colonization of the Hudson River region, as well as English land claims in 1616 Smallpox devastates Native Americans Between 1616 and 1620, small pox (brought by European settlers) ravaged the Indians of New England. The epidemic virtually wiped out many of the Indian tribes of New England. 1620 Pilgrims arrived on Mayflower at Plymouth, MA
Some 100 people, many of them seeking religious freedom in the New World, set sail from England on the Mayflower in September 1620. That November, the ship landed on the shores of Cape Cod, in presentday Massachusetts. A scouting party was sent out, and in late December the group landed at Plymouth Harbor, where they would form the first permanent
settlement of Europeans in New England http://www.history.com/topics/pilgrim s/videos#deconstructing-history-may flower
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