The 511 new testament theology

The 511 new testament theology

THE 5511 NEW TESTAMENT THEOLOGY CLASS IV: THEOLOGY OF GALATIANS, 1-2 THESSALONIANS & 1-2 CORINTHIANS THEOLOGY OF GAL, 1-2 THESS & 1-2 COR 1.1 Introduction to Pauls theology Some critical issues in Pauls theology Center of Pauls theology Occasional nature of Pauls letters & theology Synthesis or book-by-book Coherence & development in Pauls theology (1Cor 7/1Tim 5) Paul the Jew Paul the Christian Disputed and undisputed letters The New Perspective on Paul works of the Law & justification Gk. pistis christou faith[-fulness] in/of Christ THEOLOGY OF GAL, 1-2 THESS & 1-2 COR 2.1 Theology of Galatians

Background & situation briefly Judaizers & different gospel (1:6-7) Faith in Christ is not enough (cf. Acts 15:1-2) Law & salvation Circumcision; diet; calendar as requirements for salvation Attack on Pauls character & apostoleship Jewish religion and ethnicity in addition to Christ THEOLOGY OF GAL, 1-2 THESS & 1-2 COR Paul the apostle & truth of the Gospel Questioning Pauls apostleship & the Gospel Pauls call & gospel through revelation (1:12, 15-16) Autobiographical defense of the gospel (1:13-2:14) Independent of men but approved by Jerusalem apostles (2:1-10)

Gospel Sets free from present evil age (1:4) Son of Godgave himself for me (2:20) Different gospel = no gospel (1:6; 3:1) Conflict in Antioch perverted truth of the Gospel (2:11-14) Social dimension of the Gospel THEOLOGY OF GAL, 1-2 THESS & 1-2 COR True life from Gospel not Law (3:21) Why did Christ die? (2:12) Theological dimension

Righteousness correct standing before God Through works of the Law OR What God has done in Christ What is the role of Law in the past and the present? How does one enter into and maintain right standing w/ God? THEOLOGY OF GAL, 1-2 THESS & 1-2 COR Justification & righteousness Gentiles not required to do works of the Law to be accepted Meaning of justify/justification (Gk. dikaioo; dikaiosyne) Making/becoming righteous OR declaring righteous (be found innocent) Covenantal terminology accepted into the New Covenant per promise*

Legal terminology declared to be in right standing (anticipation of judgmt) Right relationship/standing with God justifies ungodly (2:16; cf. Rom 4:5) Not just forgiveness of past present reality & future hope (5:5) Justification becomes operative by faith in Christ (2:16)** Nobody is justified by works of the Law All the prescriptions in the Law OR Jewish identity badges*** Desire to trust in Christ and Law dangerous fallenfrom grace (5:4) Either works of the Law OR faith in Christ THEOLOGY OF GAL, 1-2 THESS & 1-2 COR Law of Moses and the Gospel of Christ Law cannot be imposed on gentiles cannot save anybody Jesus death accomplished

deliverance from the present evil age (1:4) Redemption from the curse of the Law [substitution] (3:13) Redemption from the control of sin (4:5) Justification and righteousness promised Spirit (2:16; 3:10-16) Law unable to bring life (3:12, 21; cf. Lev 18:5) Brought death and curse (3:12-13; cf. Deut 27:26; Lev 18:5) Circumcision avails nothing only New Creation (6:15) THEOLOGY OF GAL, 1-2 THESS & 1-2 COR Scripture bear witness to the Gospel Promise to Abraham all nations blessed by faith (3:6-9) Justification by faith per Habakkuk (3:11/Hab 2:4) Abraham righteous by faith (3:6) Laws purpose temporary arrangement (3:16-25) Law = pedagogue/tutor (3:24); points out/remedy to sin (3:22-23) Law-Gospel; Law-Faith; Law-Promise; Law/flesh-Spirit; old/new Law & the believer Law ineffective for justification but Love = fulfillment of Law (5:14; cf. Rom 13:8-10; 8:4; 1Cor 7:19; 9:21) Law of Christ carry burdens (6:2) & faith working through love (5:6)

THEOLOGY OF GAL, 1-2 THESS & 1-2 COR Life in the Spirit Blessing of Abraham promised Spirit by faith (3:14) Experience of the Spirit (3:1-5) Miracles (3:4-5) & sonship and freedom (4:6-11) Spirit & hope of righteousness (5:14) Moral life and the Spirit (5:16-26) live be led be guided by the Spirit (5:16, 18, 25) Flesh and works of the Law vs. Spirit-life Choice & battle to crucify flesh and live by Spirit Not enslaved by Law but enslavement to serve others (5:13-14)

Love fulfills the Law in the power of the Spirit THEOLOGY OF GAL, 1-2 THESS & 1-2 COR 2.2 Theology of 1 & 2 Thessalonians Background & situation of 1 & 2 Thessalonians After leaving Thessalonica Paul unable to return (1 Th 2:18) Timothy sent to strengthen & learn about the situation (3:1-5) Timothys return w/ good news Thessalonians are Steadfast & firm despite suffering (1Th 1:6; 2 Th 1:5-6) Social marginalization & suffering for newly adopted faith Later: false teaching the day of the Lord is at hand (2 Th 2:2) Overly eager eschatology corrected in 2 Thessalonians

THEOLOGY OF GAL, 1-2 THESS & 1-2 COR Gospel Gospel of God Gospel of Christ Our Gospel (1:5; 2:2-9; 3:2) Gospel about God and His saving work in Christ Turning from idols to God and waiting for Christs return (1:9-10) Salvation from sin & Gods wrath waiting for Christ (5:9-10) Word of God = Gospel per Pauls preaching (2:13)

Power of the Spirit, joy & full conviction (1:5-8) Paul embodies the gospel and church imitates Paul (1:6-8) THEOLOGY OF GAL, 1-2 THESS & 1-2 COR Election, salvation & sanctification Salvation, sanctification and election (2:12; 4:7; 5:24; cf. 3:3) Church as the community of the elect (1:4; cf. 1:1) Church destined not for wrath but salvation (5:9) Gods initiative Life of sanctification according to calling (2:12; 4:7; 5:24; 2Th 2:13) Work of faith, labor of love, steadfast hope (1:3; 3:2, 6; 4:13; 5:8) work = faith; love = community; hope = enduring suffering Call to holiness blameless and holy life (3:13; 5:24) Esp. sexual immorality (4:3) & brotherly love Power [and joy] of HS & theodidaktoi (4:8-9; 1:5-6; 5:19; cf. 2 Th 2:13) Moral struggle as warfare while waiting for parousia (5:8) THEOLOGY OF GAL, 1-2 THESS & 1-2 COR Hope of the elect and parousia Constant and eager expectation (1:9-10)

Pauls prayer for readiness be blameless (3:13; 5:23) Specific questions of parousia What happened to those who have already died? (4:13-18) Are they better or worse off? Pauls eschatological teaching as a pastoral response THEOLOGY OF GAL, 1-2 THESS & 1-2 COR if we believe Jesus died and roseGod will bringIs with Jesus those fallen the movement asleep in Him (4:14) up (to heaven?) 15 For this we say to you by the word of the Lord, that we who are OR down (to alive and remain until the coming of the Lord, will not

earth?) precede those who have fallen asleep. 16 For the Lord Himself will descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel and with the trumpet of God, and the dead in Christ will rise first. 17 Then we who are alive and remain will be caught up together with them in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air, and so we shall always be with the Lord. 18 Therefore comfort one another with these words. (4:15-18) THEOLOGY OF GAL, 1-2 THESS & 1-2 COR Day of the Lord and parousia (4:13-18) Lord will descend shout, voice of archangel & trumpet Dead rise first and then the living to meet in the air Be with the Lord forever Is this a public or secret event? (4:17) After meeting in the air come down or go up? (4:17)

Sounds loud and looks visible Gk. eis apanteesin kyriou honorable escort (cf. Matt 25:6; Acts 28:15) No indications of interruption in the descend of Christ* Timing of the parousia like a thief in the night (5:2) Paul gives few details context is pastoral THEOLOGY OF GAL, 1-2 THESS & 1-2 COR Parousia and its development in 2 Thessalonians False teaching or rumors (2:2) not be quickly shakento the effect that the day of the Lord has come. 3 Let no one in any way deceive you (2:2-3) Overly eager expectation of parousia (2:2) some lazy, not working (3:6-15) b/c of the imminent end? Suffering worthy of kingdom b/c faith & love increase* (2 Th 1:3-6) Signs before the end(2:1-12; cf. 1 Thess 5:2)

Apostasy & the mystery of lawlessness already working (2:3, 7) Will be destroyed by the Lord with breath of his mouth (2:8) Restrainer (2:6-7) Present affliction not the end THEOLOGY OF GAL, 1-2 THESS & 1-2 COR What/who is the lawless one? Events in recent history (e.g. Caligulas statue/alike) Antichrist/beast (1 John 2:18; 4:3; 2 John 7; Rev 11:7; 13:1-18) What/who is the restrainer? God, Holy Spirit; Satan

Angel Apollyon (Rev 9:11) or Michael (Jude 9; Rev 12:7) Church or prominent leader Gentile mission (cf. Mark 13:10) Roman law and order (Rom 13:1-7) Augustine: the meaningcompletely escapes me (City of God 20.19) THEOLOGY OF GAL, 1-2 THESS & 1-2 COR Suffering and persecution Suffering not an indicator of the imminent end (2 Thess 1:5-7) Purpose of suffering Make worthy of the gospel prove their faith genuine (1:5) Life in the midst of suffering Live peacefully: work & mind own business (1 Thess 4:11-12) Do good to each other and outsiders (5:15) Gods justice & ultimate reward (5:9; 2 Thess 1:10; 3:3) THEOLOGY OF GAL, 1-2 THESS & 1-2 COR

Conclusion 1-2 Thessalonians Church is a community Gods elect that are called to live life of holiness and mutual love through the power of the Sprit as they eagerly wait for Christ coming Proclamation of the gospel Election of the sanctified community Parousia of the Lord THEOLOGY OF GAL, 1-2 THESS & 1-2 COR 2.3 Theology of 1 Corinthians Background & situation briefly Paul founded the church (Acts 18) Paul wrote the lost letter (5:9) Response to quarrels (1:11) & for further clarification (7:1, 25; 8:1,4; 12:1; 16:1,12; cf. 16:15-18)

From Ephesus AD 52-53 THEOLOGY OF GAL, 1-2 THESS & 1-2 COR Problems within the Corinthian church Disunity within church (1:11-12) Sexual immorality (5:1-13; 6:18-20) Abstinence within marriage (7:1-7) Litigations (6:1-11) & idolatry (10:1-22) Disorder within church services (11-14) Lords supper Spiritual gifts The nature of and belief in the resurrection (15:1-58) Frame for the pastoral & practical theology of 1 Corinthians

THEOLOGY OF GAL, 1-2 THESS & 1-2 COR Wisdom of God and Cross of Christ Divisions (1:11-15) & boasting in the community (1:28-31) Search for wisdom, power, & manifestations of the Spirit Wisdom of God and message of the Cross (1:18-2:5) Folly of the cross to perishing (1:18-22) Scandal for Jews, stumbling block for Greeks (1:22) Saved perishing; believe unbelieving; fool wise; power weakness Paradox of Gods revelation that defies human wisdom

Gods way of saving humanity folly and weakness of the cross Received on the basis of faith: confounds wise & excludes boasting Pauls circumstances & community standing confirm this (1:26-31; 2:1-5) THEOLOGY OF GAL, 1-2 THESS & 1-2 COR Gods wisdom: righteousness, sanctification, redemption from Christ* Consists of righteousness, sanctification & redemption** Believers examples of righteousness, sanctification, redemption*** Christs work in the believer transformation (6:9-11)

Justification & sanctification overlap change in position & condition Wisdom to those who are pneumatikoi not psychikoi (2:14-15) Available by faith to those w/ Spirit (2:1, 6, 13) Are there pneumatikoi who do not understand? (3:1, 19; cf. 1:4-9) Not all are mature (Gk. teleios) [OR not really believers at all?] Gods power, wisdom & Spirit intimately connected to Cross, shame, foolishness manifested in the cross At the same time cross is the very wisdom and power of God THEOLOGY OF GAL, 1-2 THESS & 1-2 COR Unity of the sanctified community Church as sanctified community to those who are sanctified in Christ Jesus, and called to be saints

1:4 I always thank my God for you because of the grace of God that was given to you in Christ Jesus. 1:5 For you were made rich in every way in him, in all your speech and in every kind of knowledge 7 1:6 just as the testimony about Christ has been confirmed among you 1:7 so that you do not lack any spiritual gift as you wait for the revelation of our Lord Jesus Christ.1:8 He will also strengthen you to the end, so that you will be blameless on the day of our Lord Jesus Christ. 1:9 God is faithful, by whom you were called into fellowship with his son, Jesus Christ our Lord. (1 Cor 1:4-9) All this in light of problems in Corinthian church THEOLOGY OF GAL, 1-2 THESS & 1-2 COR Ekklesia as local congregation (6:4; 11:18; 14:4-5; 16:1, 19) Church of God (ekklesia tou theou) as larger entity (1Cor 15:9; 10:32) Sanctified community, theology of cross, and election (1:2-3) called to be saints set apart (1:2) objects of Gods love Holy and sanctified community connected to other ekklesiai Christs wisdom, righteousness, sanctification, redemption (1:30) washed, sanctified, justified through Christ & Spirit (6:11)

Body of Christ & Temple of the Spirit (10:16; 11:29; 3:16; 6:19) Baptism as an entry ritual (1:13; 12:13) Unity and holiness of the body threatened by divisions and sin THEOLOGY OF GAL, 1-2 THESS & 1-2 COR Threats to the unity of the sanctified community Spirit-experience & transformed life not in balance Boundaries that may not be crossed Sexual immorality (1 Cor 5:1-3; 6:9-20) Church discipline & sanctity of the community Body as new batch free from leaven as you really are (5:6-8) Temple of HS; one Spirit w/ Lord; one body* (6:12-20) Sexual abstinence in marriage (7:1-40)

Danger of falling into sexual immorality (7:2, 7) THEOLOGY OF GAL, 1-2 THESS & 1-2 COR Lawsuits among believers (6:1-8) Community disputes & future judgment (6:1-3)* - behave as if Worship and the sanctity of the community Participation in Christ does not guarantee practical holiness Israels baptism & spiritual food & drink (10:1-5) Fell into idolatry Church cannot have koinonia w/ Christ and idols/demons (10:10-20) Lords supper as spiritual koinonia w/ one another (11:17-34; 10:17)

one goes hungry, others drunk (11:21)** body of Christ & holiness Unity of the body, proclamation of Christs death, resurrection, parousia THEOLOGY OF GAL, 1-2 THESS & 1-2 COR Body of Christ (12:12-31) metaphor for the church Spirit Jesus is Lord (12:3) & baptism into body (12:13) Spiritual gifts: same Spirit, same Lord, same God (12:4-6) manifestation of the Spirit for the common good Roles and variety of gifts (12:29-30) Interdependence of the members of the body (12:25-26) Orderly use of gifts in the assembly (14:1-19) Importance of prophecy over tongues for common good (14:1-12) Orderly contribution according to gifts by all (14:26-40) Gods character & worship (order, peace, judgment, revelation) Response: worship, edification, instruction, discernment, repentance THEOLOGY OF GAL, 1-2 THESS & 1-2 COR

Resurrection and afterlife (1 Cor 15; cf. 2 Cor 5) No resurrection (15:12) & How are the dead raised (15:35) Gospel as a fact attested by Scripture & witnesses (15:1-11) Connection b/w Christs and believers resurrection (15:12-19) Affirm one, gain the other deny one, loose both Christ as first fruits death in Adam, alive in Christ Christs reign, second coming, and handing of Kingdom to Father (15:24-28) THEOLOGY OF GAL, 1-2 THESS & 1-2 COR 1) Christs a literal Millennium in2)1Resurrection Cor 15?* Does Paul talk about (or imply) resurrection of believers But each in his own order: Christ the first fruits, after that those who are 3) Christ hands Christs at His coming, 24 then comes the end, when He hands over the

Kingdom to Father kingdom to the God and Father, when He has abolished all rule and all 4) Final 25 authority and power. For He must reign until He has put all His enemies resurrection & death under His feet. 26 The last enemy that will be abolished is death. 27 For HEabolished HAS PUT ALL THINGS IN SUBJECTION UNDER HIS FEET. But when He says, All things are put in subjection, it is evident that He is excepted who put all things in subjection to Him.28 When all things are subjected to Him, then the Son Himself also will be subjected to the One who subjected all things to Him, so that God may be all in all. (1 Cor 15:23-28) 23 Alternatively the sequence of no: 2-4 happen simultaneously** THEOLOGY OF GAL, 1-2 THESS & 1-2 COR

Resurrection body (15:35-58) Continuity & discontinuity b/w earthy body & resurrection body Seed and plant different types of bodies Perishable imperishable; Glory dishonor; weakness power Sin/death power & glory Physical [psychikon] body spiritual [pneumatikon] body Mortal body immortality Adam (living being & from earth) Christ (life-giving spirit & heaven) Man of dust man of heaven --- resurrection & heaven-image Mystery of the last trumpet, transformation & defeat of death/evil

Resurrection & judgment live a holy life (15:58-16:1-4; 6:14) THEOLOGY OF GAL, 1-2 THESS & 1-2 COR 2.4 Theology of 2 Corinthians Background & situation briefly After writing 1 Cor from Ephesus (1Cor 16:5-7) Change in plans painful confrontation (2 Cor 2:5; 7:12; 13:2) Arrival of super-apostles (11:5; 12:11) & contest for authority tearful letter (cf. 1 Cor 5:9; 2 Cor 2:3-4, 9; 7:12) ultimatum to the church to discipline (2 Cor 2:9; 7:12; regret 7:8) Trials in Asia deadly peril (1:8-9) Paul to Troas (2:12-13); message from Titus about repentance (7:9-11) Pauls confidence restored (7:16)

2 Cor as a response to ongoing disputes, persecutions & false teachers THEOLOGY OF GAL, 1-2 THESS & 1-2 COR God & Lord Jesus Christ God and Christ inseparable (1:1-4; 3:4; 8:1; 9:8, 14) God source of peace, grace, apostleship & Lord of the church Compassion, mercy, faithfulness experience of hope (1:8-9) God in Christ bringing reconciliation (5:18) Life-giving power of God & resurrection of Christ (4:14) Christ as Lord, glory and image of God (4:4; 2:8) Knowledge & glory of God in the face of Jesus (4:6)

Beholding the glory of the Lord/Sprit & transformation (3:14-18) Judgment seat of Christ (5:10) New creation, reconciliation & union w/ Christ (5:17-18) THEOLOGY OF GAL, 1-2 THESS & 1-2 COR Old and New Covenant (6:16; 11:25) Ministers of the covenants Moses & Paul (2:16-4:6) apostle of Jesus Christ by the will of God (1:1; cf. 2:16) competence from God for new covenant (2:16; 3:5-6) Comparison of old and new covenants (cf. Jer 31:31-33; Ezek 36:26) Tablet of stone, letter [=Law]; death and condemnation (3:3, 6, 9) Revealed [lesser] glory but didnt impart life; veil (3:7, 10, 12) Spirit & tablet of heart; competence from God; justification & glory; transparency (3:3-11) Greater glory in Christ; open face-to-face relationship; freedom; transformation into Christ-likeness (3:11-18) unveiled glory (cf. Ex 34:29-35) seen & reflected in Christ (4:4-6)

THEOLOGY OF GAL, 1-2 THESS & 1-2 COR Suffering & glory momentary afflictioneternal glory Suffering Christ as aroma of death and life (1:5; 2:14-15) Christ made sin for us (5:21) Christ became poor for us (8:9) Conformity to Christ paradox of suffering and glory Triumphant procession & sufferings of Christ for us (2:14; 1:5) THEOLOGY OF GAL, 1-2 THESS & 1-2 COR Glory in clay jars to demonstrate extraordinary power (4:7) Affliction & carrying the death of Christ (4:10; 1:8) Make Jesus visible in his body Paul as illustration of the gospel; inner life and renewal through Spirit (4:16) Christs ambassador of the glorious new covenant (5:20) Afflictions for the sake of Christ (6:4-10) Power in weakness & Gods grace (11:22-12:10) Response to super apostles* - boasting of suffering (11:5; 12:11)

Christs power manifested in weakness, suffering, hardships (12:9-10) Gods glory, power and wisdom through cross and apostolic suffering THEOLOGY OF GAL, 1-2 THESS & 1-2 COR Life beyond death (5:1-10; cf. 1 Cor 15) 1 Cor 15 states Resurrection of Christ implies general resurrection Resurrection body will be transformed by the Spirit This will happen at the last trumpet in Christs coming 2 Cor 5 Resurrection power, suffering & weakness Clay jar is afflicted, perplexed, persecuted, struck down given to death constantly BUT Spirit invigorates inner life (4:6-18)

THEOLOGY OF GAL, 1-2 THESS & 1-2 COR Life after death (2 Cor 5:1-10) Intermediate state (Phil 1:21-23) OR resurrection body (1 Cor 15)? Earthly tent (groaning) building from God/heavenly dwelling Naked clothed (cf. 4:16) Mortality (eternal) life through the Spirit In the body home with the Lord Earthly tent, naked, in the body = present life Building/dwelling, life, home w/ Lord = heaven OR resurrection What is the meaning of these phrases? How to combine w/ other Pauline texts (1 Cor 15; 1 Thess 4; Phil 1:20-26; 3:20-21) THEOLOGY OF GAL, 1-2 THESS & 1-2 COR

Resurrection body only at parousia (cf. 1Cor 15; 1 Thess 4; Phil 3:20-21) being with the Lord as intermediate non-bodily state (Phil 1:20-26) Most viable option (otherwise final resurrection makes little sense) Resurrection body received at death (2 Cor 5:1-10) No intermediate states (cf. Phil 1:21-23) Soul sleep and resurrection at parousia (1 Cor 15) How to reconcile with Phil 1:20-26 and 2 Cor 5:1-10? Practical exhortation to live godly life because Judgment seat of Christ THEOLOGY OF GAL, 1-2 THESS & 1-2 COR God, Christ, and the Spirit in 1-2 Corinthians sample passages

there is no God but one 5 For even Hear, O Israel! The LORD is our God, the LORD is one! 5 You shall love the LORD your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your might. (Deut 6:4-5) 4 if there are so-called gods whether in heaven or on earth, as indeed there are many gods and many lords, 6 yet for us there is but one God, the Father, from whom are all things and we exist for Him; and one Lord, Jesus 5 Christ, by whom are all things, and and God-Father and LordLord

we exist through Him. (1 Cor 8:6)God-Father 66 Jesus remain Jesus remain (LXX Deut. 6:4-5)

separate yet ONE God separate yet ONE God Contrast between idols and one true God 4. , ,

Adaption of Deut 6:4-5 the monotheistic Creed about God Christ Jesus Christological monotheism One God and One Lord . . (1

(1 Cor. Cor. 8:6) 8:6) Identity of Jesus is found in the very essence of one God of Israel* THEOLOGY OF GAL, 1-2 THESS & 1-2 COR Such were some of you; but you were washed, but you were sanctified, but you were justified in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ and in the Spirit of our God. (1 Cor 6:11) 11 Practical Trinity in operation

Christ as the Lord over all Spirit as cleansing agent God (Father) as the foundation Then I will sprinkle clean water on you, and you will be clean; I will cleanse you from all your filthiness and from all your idols.26 Moreover, I will give you a new heart and put a new spirit within you; and I will remove the heart of stone from your flesh and give you a heart of flesh. 27 I will put My Spirit within you and cause you to walk in My statutes, and you will be careful to observe My ordinances. (Ezek 36:25-27) 25 Cooperation of all three person echoing Ezekiels promise THEOLOGY OF GAL, 1-2 THESS & 1-2 COR The grace of the Lord Jesus

Christ, and the love of God, and the fellowship of the Holy Spirit, be with you all. (2 Cor 13:13) 14 Final Benediction . (2 Cor 13:13) Triadic reference to God Lord Jesus God (Father) Spirit

God as Jesus, God, and Holy Spirit work together harmoniously Fellowship () of the Spirit enables participation into Gods love and the grace of Lord Jesus Christ THEOLOGY OF GAL, 1-2 THESS & 1-2 COR Now there are varieties of gifts, but the same Spirit. 5 And there are varieties of ministries, and the same Lord. 6 There are varieties of effects, but the same God who works all things in all persons. (1 Cor 12:4-6) 4 , 5 , 6 , . (1 Cor 12:4-6)

4 Spiritual gifts and the One God the same Spirit, the same Lord, the same God Triadic God operates together to Distribute spiritual gifts; enable ministries; brings results

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