Tek 8.8

Tek 8.8

Periodic Table Unit 3 Vocabulary Atomic Number Atomic Mass Atomic Symbol

Valence electron Orbital Electron Shell Energy Level Valence shell

Atomic Number -reflects the # of protons in the nucleus and electrons in the electron cloud of a balanced atom of that element. ATOMIC NUMBER = # OF PROTONS & ELECTRONS

Atomic Number Atomic Mass -the sum of the protons and the average number of neutrons Atomic Mass

# of Neutrons Atomic Mass (rounded to nearest whole number) minus # of protons AM - p = N +

AM-P=N Example Atomic Symbol Putting it all together Atomic

Number Element Symbol Atomic Mass

Electron Orbitals aka Electron Shells aka Energy Levels -the location and the path around

the nucleus where an electron can be found -the amount of energy carried by an electron in an atom Energy Level Maximum # of Electrons each level can hold

8 e8 e- Nucleus 2 e-

Nucleus Valence Shell -the outermost shell of an atom in its uncombined state -all atoms want their valence shells filled.

Valence Electron electrons located in the valence shell # of valence e- will determine the reactivity of the atom. The more Valence es the more stable and HAPPY (Noble Gases)

The less valence es the more reactive and EXPLOSIVE or UNHAPPY (Alkali Earth Metals) Dmitri Mendeleev a Russian chemist and inventor

formulated the Periodic Law created a version of the periodic table of elements predict the properties of elements yet to be

discovered Periods A row of elements in the periodic table whose elements change gradually and predictably. 7 periods

Period # = # of shells Period 1 = 1 shell Period 2 = 2 shells Period 3 = 3 shells Etc, etc Periods

Groups (Families) Columns in the Periodic Table that contain elements that have similar physical or chemical properties. 18 groups Elements have same # of valence

e Ex. Group13 has 3 valence e- Groups Metals An element that has luster, is malleable,

ductile, and is a good conductor of heat and electricity Most are solids Some are liquids (Mercury and Neptunium)

91 metals Nonmetals -Gases or brittle solids -Poor conductors -Only 17 nonmetals

-include elements vital to life (P,C,O,I, N, S) Sulfur Chlorine Carbon

Metalloids -an element that shares some properties with metals and some with nonmetals. -6 metalloids Silicon

Color Your Period Table I. Label the periods. (1-7) II. Label the groups. (1-18) III. Color metals blue. IV. Color non-metals yellow. V. Color metalloids green.

VI. Create a key to show what each color represents. Group 1(Alkali Metals) -Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr -1 valence e-very reactive metals (except H-non-metal)

Li Na Sodium Potassium

Lithium Rubidium Cesium

Group 2 (Alkaline Earth Metals) -Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra - 2 valence e-very reactive metals (less reactive than group 1) Mg

Be Magnesium Calcium

Barium Radium Beryllium Strontium

Group 13 (The Boron Family) B, Al, Ga, In, Tl 3 valence e All metal except B (metalloid) B AL

Group 14 (The Carbon Family)

C, Si, Ge, Sn, Pb 4 valence eNonmetals: C Metalloids: Si, Ge Metals: Sn, Pb

C Si Group 15 (The Nitrogen Family)

N, P, As, Sb, Bi 5 valence enonmetals: N, P Metalloids: As, Sb

Metal: Bi N P Group 16 (The Oxygen

FAMILY) -O, S, Se, Te, Po -6 valence e-nonmetals: O, S, Se -Metalloids: Te, Po S

Group 17 (The Halogen/Halides Family)

F, Cl, Br, I, At 7 valence eAll nonmetal except At (metalloid) salt-formers F Cl

Bromine Fluorine Chlorine Iodine

Group 18 (The Noble Gases) He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn Full Valence shells=Stable Rarely combine with other elements He

Transition Elements Groups 3-12 All metals Include the Inner Transition Elements Lanthanide Series Actinide Series

Halogens Alkali Metals Alkaline Earth Metals Noble Gases Transition Elements

Inner Transition Elements

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