Synthetic Drugs and other Current Trends in Substance Abuse Joy Ford, CPS LifeSkills Regional Prevention Center Bowling Green, Ky Synthetic Drugs Synthetic Marijuana,K2, Spice, Bath Salts First detected in US in November 2008 by DEA
First encountered by U.S. Customs and Border Protection July, 2012 Federal government passed a law that made the sale of some synthetics illegal Poison Control Centers received: 2,906 Calls in 2010 6, 959 Calls in 2011
639 Calls in January, 2012 ( 12 x 639 = 7668) Synthetic Drugs Synthetic Marijuana,K2, Spice, Bath Salts Dangerous Not Safe as a second choice or alternative to more well-known drugs
Labeled as Natural Synthetic Marijuana contain materials laced with synthetic cannabinoids that mimic THC Bath Salts contain manmade materials related to amphetamines (synthetic cathinones) Synthetic Marijuana K2 and Spice are street names Mixture of herbs and plant products sprayed with
psychotropic drugs and other toxic substances to mimic the effects of THC Act on same parts of the brain and body as THC, but the effects can be very different. Sold as Incense labeled NOT FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Marketed as a SAFE and LEGAL alternative to marijuana
Synthetic marijuana Red X Dawn Genie Yucatan Fire Blaze
NOT FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION *Mask intended purpose * Avoid FDA regulatory oversight of the manufacturing process Synthetic Marijuana Depending on synthetic compound in specific commercial
brand, can be anywhere from 4 times to over 100 times more potent and more dangerous than regular marijuana (THC) Were being sold in tobacco shops, head shops, and convenience stores Price averages $45 for 3 grams (about equal to 3 sugar packets)-higher than good grade marijuana Can be snorted, smoked or injected. Most often smoked but can be mixed with food or drink
Herbal Incense Packaged as Incense: Implying Safety 9 Why Popularity of Synthetics Easy Access Convenience stores, smoke shops, gas
stations, internet, etc Sold as Novelty item - sold legally with disclaimer that theyre Not for Human Consumption Misperception natural therefore harmless Not easily detected in standard drug tests Profile of Users: 14-27 yr olds; prisoners/probationers SIGNS OF USE Strong Clove Smell
Coffee grinder finer the powder, easier to smoke Drug paraphernalia (pipes, screens, etc) Typically smoked Physical Signs of Use Loss of Control Lack of Pain response Increased agitation
Pale skin Seizures and/or Vomiting Profuse Sweating Uncontrolled/spastic body movements Elevated Blood Pressure, heart rate, and palpitations Intoxication
15 Effects of Synthetic Marijuana Onset - 3-5 Minutes Length of Duration 1-8 hours Short-term effects: In addition to physical signs of use, users may experience:
Dysphoria the opposite of euphoria Paranoia similar to PCP/Angel Dust Delusions, Hallucinations and increased agitation Monsters, Demons, Gone to Hell and Back Long term effects ?????
FDA Safety and Innovation Act SEC.1152 Addition of Synthetic Drugs to Schedule 1 of the Controlled Substances Act. Senate passed on May 24, 2012; Bill was signed into law on July 9, 2012 Schedule 1 Drug no medical purposes; can produce a high
Anything that binds to cannabinoid receptors (CB1 receptor) Bath salts No legitimate use for bath watermarketed for novelty use only 305 Identified bath salts
5 of the 305 are identified and considered a controlled substance Products contain various amphetamine-like chemicals Mimics cocaine, LSD and methamphetamine present a high abuse and addiction liability Snort, inject and ingest
Bath Salts Emerging family of drugs containing one or more synthetic chemicals related to cathinone, an amphetamine-like stimulant found naturally in the KHAT Plant Marketed as Bath Salts to evade detection by authorities No standard formulation composition of
chemicals can be different from one package to another Not all Bath Salts are marketed as Bath Salts Marketed as Magic Plant Food Marketed as Magic Plant Food
Natural Insect Repellent Plant Feeder or Stain Remover Bath Salts * The drug called Bath Salts is very different from the product that you put into a bath. *Only reason why they have the same name is the
products look similar like a fine powder. How can you tell? Not for Human Consumption Not Illegal Only for 18+ Adults
Why do Teens Use Bath Salts For energy/alternative to illegal stimulants Perceived to be Legal Not picked up on standard drug tests will not test positive at work or at school Availability Considered to be Safer than Meth Word of Mouth Curiosity/Peer Pressure
Symptoms of Bath Salts Cant sleep Bizarre behavior Rapid heart rate Difficulty breathing Much longer duration than synthetic marijuana Being new trend, not all short-term nor any long-term effects are known
Effects of Bath Salts Severe Paranoia that sometimes causes users to harm themselves or others Suicidal thoughts Agitation Combative/Violent Behavior Confusion Hallucinations
Increased Heart Rate/ Hypertension Speed of onset 15 minutes Length of High 4-6 hours Efforts to control Synthetics Most of the synthetic products originate overseas
Manufactured in the absence of quality controls and devoid of governmental regulatory oversight Many of the illegal chemicals can be easily synthesized and it is easy to stay one step ahead of the current regulations and regulatory scheme Prescription Drug Abuse Prescription or Over the Counter medications are
becoming the new gateway drug for many teens Prescription drug abuse remains a significant problem in the United States. How are Prescription Drugs Abused? Prescription Drug Abuse Increasing numbers of teens using to get high
Many adults dont know about problem Teens perceive RX drugs to be safer than street drugs Legal Prescribed Safer based on prescribed by a physician and dispensed by pharmacist Dont get from drug dealers Information regarding rx drugs and effects are widely available They are obtained from doctors, pharmacies,
Additional Because prescribed by doctors they are Safe under any circumstances. Varied motivations for abuse: To sleep
Relieve stress To get high Increasing environmental availability RX for stimulants increased from 5 million to 45 million RX for Opioid analgesics increased from 75.5 million to 209.5 millions
Prescription Drug Abuse Statistics Nations fastest growing drug problem. Low Perception of Risk considered Safer based on prescribed by a physician and dispensed by pharmacist Most teens report getting RX drugs from home, family or friends Teens reporting use of Vicodin, Adderall,
Tranquilizers, Cough Medicine Oxycontin and Ritalin Ways Rx Drugs can be used illegally or unsafely in the workplace Taking prescribed amount in excess Taking in combination with other substances contrary to the directions of the prescribing physician
Doing things that are prohibited to do such as driving or operating dangerous machinery Work related indicators of prescription drugs abuse Behavioral and coordination issues Behavioral indicators can be strong indicators of a drug abuse problem. The most common signs are:
Surprisingly foolish, stupid behavior and incidents Thefts in the workplace Withdrawn, hostile, or uncommunicative behavior where these are unusual traits. Deteriorating, unhealthy personal appearance Odd smells Secretive behavior Productivity signs
Work performance is a very reliable indicator of problems. Common issues related to drug abuse include: High rate of uncharacteristic errors Very inconsistent work performance with marked deteriorations in quality of work Lack of productivity resulting in backlogs and bad management of workloads
Frequent complaints from other staff regarding performance of tasks and standards of work Aggression, mood swings, emotional overreactions The nature of many drugs often results in behavioral changes which are reliable indicators of abuse Some of the psychological effects of prescription drug abuse are shocking and appalling. Typical psychological effects include:
Aggression: An irrational, antagonistic mentality with no obvious cause. Mood swings: These can be a bewildering range of moods from tearful to high spirited to distinctly unfriendly, in a matter of minutes Emotional overreactions: Disproportionate reactions to situations, positive or negative, sometimes embarrassing . Areas of Concern
Marijuana 5 year trends show significant increases among 10th and 12th graders Prescription and Over the Counter Medications account for most of the top illicit drugs abused by 12th graders in the past year 11.4 % of high school seniors reported using Spice in the past year Is Marijuana Medicine?
10 states have legalized marijuana to treat conditions including pain and nausea associated with HIV/AIDS, Cancer and other conditions Not enough scientific evidence for FDA approval Not enough clinical trials to show benefits outweigh health risks To be considered a legimate medicine, a substance must have well-defined and measureable ingredients
that are consistent from one unit to another. Dose/frequency Why smoke a drug that causes additional problems and damage Designer Alcopops Energy Drinks Alcoholic and Nonalcoholic Non-Alcoholic Energy Drinks
Active Ingredients: Caffeine, Taurine, Ginseng, Guarana, BVitamins Non-Alcoholic drinks list nutritional facts: on the can or bottle One 2.5-ounce energy drink on the market right now has the same amount of caffeine as a 12-pack of cola. Alcoholic Energy Drinks Most contain premium malt beverage with natural
and artificial flavors, caffeine, taurine, ginseng and guarana. One 23.5 oz. can of 12% alcohol has as much alcohol as 4.7 beers. One 16 oz. can of 6.6% alcohol has as much alcohol as 1.8 beers.
Sparks Plus-contains 87 mg caffeine- 1.12 oz alcohol per 16 oz. can Jack and coke- 13 mg caffeine- 0.6 oz. alcohol in a regular glass Irish coffee- 35-75 mg caffeine- 0.6 oz. alcohol
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