Tang and Song Dynasties, Mongol Invasions, and Ming Dynasty Achievements Pre- Tang Dynasty Built the Grand Canal, which connected the Yellow River in the north and the Yangzi River in the south Farmers and merchants in the south (rice) used
the canal to connect to the North Government and military officials could travel and control citizens Many died while building the canal Pre-Tang Dynasty (Sui Dynasty) Achievements Repaired and lengthened the Great Wall Provided security from Northern invaders which
allowed cultural and economic growth Many died while building the wall, and buried among the bricks: giving it the nickname The worlds longest cemetery Tang Dynasty 618-907 CE: Golden Age of culture China was the richest most powerful country in the world
Tang Dynasty-Government: Aristocracy Used civil service exams but.. The aristocrats (gentry) the wealthy landowning class got most jobs Civil service exams favored aristocrats Tang Dynasty-Government
Only dynasty to have a female emperor: Empress Wu Chao Ruled with an iron fist: if anyone threatened her, they risked being killed
Tang Dynasty-Military One of the biggest empires in Chinese history Stretched from inner Mongolia in the north, to Vietnam in the south to Korea in the east, to Kashmir in the west Tang Dynasty-Economics Reopened the silk road- a system for trade,
travel, communication, exchange of ideas From China to the West: silk, porcelain, jade, tea, paper, printing, farming methods, weapons From the West to China: glass, rugs, horses, silver, medicine, spices, Christianity, Islam Tang Dynasty-Economics Equal Field System- redistributed land
Citizens were classified into ranks and land was given equally to members of various ranks Citizens paid taxes on how much land they received Government benefited from increased number of taxpayers, limited power of rural aristocrats, and loyalty of peasants who got land Benefited commoners and peasants by giving them a chance to gain wealth
Tang Dynasty-Religion Buddhism very popular in beginning but Tang leaders based their government on Confucian ideals and feared the growing power of Buddhists Confucian Tang ruler, Wu Zong, repressed Buddhism. He burned texts, took lands from Buddhist temples, destroyed many temples and
turned others into schools. Tang Dynasty-Culture Chinese culture flourished during this period Tang artists and poets were influenced by Daoism and stressed the beauty, power, harmony, and peace of nature Li Bo and Du Fu- very famous
Chinese poets and Wu Daozifamous artist lived at this time Made amazing objects in clay Even government officials painted, wrote, studied poetry, and made pottery Song Dynasty 960-1279 CE Song China was limited to
provinces south of the Great Wall Song Dynasty -Government Strengthened the system of meritocracy Started ruling according to Confucian beliefs: 1. Scholarly class of civil servants 2.Stablility and harmony in social order can only result from respecting hierarchies People joined the bureaucracy by passing civil
service examinations-this ensured only intelligent and talented people became civil servants Song Dynasty-Government Tests very difficult - though rare, people from lower classes could become officials Only 2-10% of test takers would reach the final test and receive a position in govt. If you passed you became a scholar
official- an educated member of the government Scholar officials were considered elite members of society and were highly respected and admired for their knowledge and ethics Song Dynasty-FARMING Chinese farming excelled New Irrigation techniques, Dug
underground wells, Dragon Backbone pump-light portable pump that allowed farmers to scoop up water and pour it into a canal Discovery of fast ripening rice= 2 or 3 harvests a year Began growing tea, cotton Song Dynasty-Economy
Merchants also became wealthy by selling the surplus crops to cities and neighboring areas such as Korea, Japan, Persia, Arab world and East Africa Invented paper money-first time in history merchants didnt have to carry bags of coins
Power of merchant class and importance of cities rose INVASION OF THE MONGOLS Mongols: Genghis Khan Skilled warriors (used gunpowder and cannons)
Nomadic in Central Asia Horsemen Expansion of Mongol Territory See map on p.309 in textbook Pax Mongolica economic growth and cultural exchange
Reign of Kublai Khan Yuan Dynasty (1271 1368) Built a giant palace in Cambaluc (Beijing) Welcomed foreign visitors Ibn Battuta (African) Marco Polo (Venetian)
MARCO POLO Describes Kublai Khans palace as the greatest palace there ever was. This is a drawing of the palace Ming Dynasty Restored meritocracy civil service exams
Economic expansion rice farming; porcelain making; printing; canal repairing; landscape painting; poetry writing; novels; Chinese opera Voyages of Zheng He In 1405, sailed throughout Asia and Africa
Ships 400ft long Showed many the power of China The Forbidden City Forbidden City Built 1406-1420 It is the imperial palace (where the emperors live) China Turned Inward
1433 Zheng He died Ming emperor banned ship making traveling and sailing declined Confucian leaders looked at bettering China, rather than abroad
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