Acoustics of Concert Halls and Rooms SUBJECTIVE AND OBJECTIVE ROOM ACOUSTIC PARAMETERS Science of Sound, Chapter 23 Concert Halls and Opera Houses (Beranek 1966, 2004) Handbook of Acoustics, Chapter 9 (Gade), Chapter 10 (Ando) WHAT ARE GOOD ACOUSTICS? Every concert hall and opera house has its own distinct acoustics. Any music lover, of course, feels the effect of a
halls acoustical design, often without realizing its importance unless he or she has made a practice of listening to music in many different venues. Consequently, an attempt to determine which acoustical qualities concertgoers prefer usually elicits recollections about the particular concerts that gave a listener the deepest pleasure. For that individual, a number of elements come together to create that pleasure the composition, the conductor, the orchestra, and the hall must in combination be excellent to produce a memorable listening experience. For the music professional, however, whether a conductor, a performer, or an acoustical engineer, it is vital to distinguish among these ingredients and to understand what each contributes to the totality.
L. L. Beranek (2004) A COMMON LANGUAGE FOR MUSICIANS, ARCHITECTS, ACOUSTICIANS Reverberation and fullness of tone Definition Resonance Intimacy Liveness Spaciousness Warmth Listener envelopment
Loudness Timbre Acoustical glare Brilliance Balance Blend Ensemble Immediacy of response (attack) Texture Echoes Dynamic range and
background noise level ACOUSTIC PARAMETERS (Gade, 2007) Reverberance (RT, EDT) Clarity (C) Sound strength (G) Spaciousness apparent source width (ASW) listener envelopment (LEV) Timbre or tone color (balance between hi, med, low freq) Ease of ensemble Early support Speech inteligibility
CONDITIONS FOR PERFORMERS It is also important to consider the performers conditions Musicians will be concerned about reverberance and timbre, of course, but also ease of ensemble and early support Ease of ensemble relates to how well musicians can hear and play together with their colleagues. Related to the amount of early reflection energy on the stage. Early support (STearly) depends on ratio of early reflection energy to direct sound (one meter from source)
Desirable reverberation times for various sizes and functions Variations of reverberation time with frequency in good halls SUGGESTED VALUES FOR OBJECTIVE
PARAMETERS (GADE, 2007) SUBJECTIVE PREFERENCE THEORY OF Y. ANDO Orthogonal parameters Listening level (LL) Early reflection time after the direct sound Reverberation time (Rtsub) after the early reflection Interaural cross correlation function (IACC) CALCULATED VALUES OF FOUR ORTHOGONAL FACTORS AT DIFFERENT SEATS IN THE KRISHIMA
INTERNATIONA CONCERT HALL (JAPAN) listening level (LL) total reflection initial time delay IACC
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