Strategic Parasite Control Back in the news. Backed by sound science. Strategic Parasite Control The Buzz Today March 2005 Drovers Deworming calves (beginning in the spring) may be the most cost-effective management practice around: it results in healthier calves with healthier immune systems, weight gains that provide return on investment and cleaner pastures. March 2005 JAVMA A series of 11 South Dakota trials demonstrates the value of controlling internal parasites at spring turnout and throughout the grazing season. The Concept Has Always Been Appealing
It would seem that a new approach is being made in the control of nematode parasites. The emphasis is now on pasture hygiene, achieved by combining the intelligent use of anthelmintics with controlled grazing in such a way as to protect young animals from heavy infestations and at the same time to build up their resistance to parasitic diseases. The same principles may be applied to practically all helminth infections and as better anthelmintics become available and more knowledge of life cycles and bionomics of various parasites are acquired, there is every reason to hope that the tremendous losses due to parasitism of farm livestock will be greatly reduced. A. Russell, 1949 Vet Rec 61:238-239. The Science Has Always Been Sound Preventive approach
Multiple treatments Reduce parasite populations below performance threshold Reduce pasture contamination The Benefits Have Always Been Compelling Increased weight gains
Heavier weaning weights Improved immune response to vaccinations Reduced pasture contamination Parasite Signs Rarely Seen Dr. Bert Stromberg, University of Minnesota Clinical Parasitism
Reduced weaning weight Reduced milk production Reduced reproductive performance Reduced growth rate Increased susceptibility to disease
Negative effects on immune response Parasite Populations Rarely in the Host 5% in host 95% in pasture Dr. Bert Stromberg, University of Minnesota The primary purpose of parasite control is not to cure sick animalsbut to reduce levels of pasture contamination and consequently prevent such episodes of illness or reduced productivity. SOURCE: Williams JC, Loyacano AF. Internal Parasites of Cattle in Louisiana and Other Southern States. LSU Research Information Sheet #104 (2001):13.
Strong Demand and Markets Make SPC Hard to Ignore High demand and high prices raise the stakes Every pound of production is worth more It gets harder for all producers to ignore the value of SPC Why Isnt Everybody Using Strategic Parasite Control? Why Isnt Everybody Using
Strategic Parasite Control? Tradition (Dad only wormed cattle once a year.) Why Isnt Everybody Using Strategic Parasite Control? Tradition Lack of understanding of epidemiology (What difference does it make when I treat cattle?) Why Isnt Everybody Using Strategic Parasite Control?
Tradition Lack of understanding of epidemiology Lack of convenience (Ill just wait and treat them for parasites when Ive got a good reason to handle them.) Economic Impact of Cattle Parasites GI Nematodes 0.4 to 1.0 lb per day
10:1 ROI Horn Flies 0.2 lb per day 5:1 ROI *Derouen SM, Foil LD, Knox JW, Turpin JM, Horn Fly Control and Weight Gains of Yearling Beef Cattle, 1995 Veterinary Entomology * Why Isnt Everybody Using Strategic Parasite Control?
Tradition Lack of understanding of epidemiology Lack of convenience Subclinical infections are often overlooked Effectiveness of todays endectocides (We killed a whole bunch of parasites a few weeks ago. That should hold em.) Merial Hosts Parasitologist Symposium Leading cattle parasitologists attending To review established benefits of Strategic Parasite Control
To identify regional differences in parasite control To discuss the latest in Strategic Parasite Control Treat the Cattle. Clean up the Pasture. Where are the Parasites? 5% to 10% In Host 90% to 95%
On Pasture - Dr. Bert Stromberg, University of Minnesota Seasonal Transmission Patterns (Cool- vs. Warm-Season Parasites) (for graphical representation only) Relative transmission of nematodes and lungworms in cattle in the southeastern United States. - Dr. Thomas Craig, Texas A&M Season Transmission Patterns Northern US (Total Worms and Inhibited L4 Larvae) (for graphical representation only) Eggs per gram epg's
Dynamics of Parasite Transmission Northern US 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 May Cow Calf Jun
Jul Aug Month - Dr. Bert Stromberg, University of Minnesota Sep Oct Mathematics of Parasite Infection Conservative parasite load 2 eggs/gram Average fecal production 20 kg/day Daily production/animal 40,000 eggs For a 100-cow herd:
4,000,000 eggs/day Cattle are Hosts and Multipliers Total x 10 6 Eggs per eggs year (millions) 35 30 25 20 Calf Cow 15 10
5 0 May Jun Jul Aug Month on pasture - Dr. Bert Stromberg, University of Minnesota Sep Oct Pasture Contamination
A Vicious Cycle - Southern US (for graphical representation only) Data on file at Merial. Does Winter Kill Off Parasites? Infected larvae on pasture survive winter to reinfect cattle in spring Cold and dry: reduced survivability Cold and snow: survivability is high
Research shows that parasites can also be transmitted during cold Northern winters Dr. Bert Stromberg, University of Minnesota Why Spring Treatment is Important Spring pastures will be contaminated with overwintered parasites Rapid growth of cool-season pasture grasses encourages grazing Spring-treated cows wean heavier calves Spring vaccinations are more effective when cattle
are parasite-free Change in Mass of Draining Lymph Nodes After Infection with Ostertagia 28 days after infection, the immune system is negatively affected by the presence of parasites* *Data on file at Merial. Timing is Everything March 2005 Drovers Deworming calves (beginning in the spring) may be the most cost-effective management practice around: it results in healthier calves with healthier immune systems, weight gains that provide return on investment and cleaner pastures. 0-wk + 10-wk program 32.66 lbs
3-wk + 10-wk program 43.56 lbs March 2005 JAVMA Cattle receiving consistent control throughout the grazing season (using the IVOMEC SR Bolus) had higher average daily gains. A series of 11 South Dakota trials demonstrates the value of controlling internal parasites at spring turnout and throughout the grazing season. The Importance of Multiple (Effective) Treatments Trial comparing multiple treatments IVOMEC 8x program 373 lbs IVOMEC 3x program 282 lbs Fenbendazole 3x program 189 lbs Control group (w/salvage treatments of IVOMEC)
259 lbs SOURCE: Williams JC, et al. Agri-Practice 1992 In a Perfect World You could provide consistent control throughout the grazing season with a single treatment The real-world alternative is to maintain low parasite populations with multiple, well-timed treatments Sustained Release = Optimal Gains Effect of IVOMEC SR Bolus on weight gains.* Mean Weight Gain Increase (P<0.01)
120 +111 100 +92 80 +75 +67 60 40 +41
20 0 Tennessee Arkansas Mississippi *Jacobsen JA, et al. Productivity of cattle treated with the IVOMEC SR Bolus, Proceedings of the American Assoc. of Veterinary Parasitologists, #75, July, 1996. Florida Missouri IVOMEC SR Bolus vs. Popular Endectocides
LA *Jacobsen JA, et al. Productivity of cattle treated with the IVOMEC SR Bolus, Proceedings of the American Assoc. of Veterinary Parasitologists, #75, July, 1996. MS MS MS Maximum Cow/Calf Parasite Control If the goal is to achieve maximum parasite control with minimal
pasture contamination and reinfection, multiple treatments will be necessary With endectocides, reinfection via eggs will resume in approximately five weeks Re-treatment every five weeks will control the worms in the animal and continue to reduce pasture contamination (Williams et al AgriPractice 1992 had eight treatments) Note: Trial conducted on stockers. Optimum Cow/Calf Parasite Control Spring treatment with an endectocide when spring grazing begins Treat again five weeks later with an endectocide Treat again eight weeks later with an endectocide Treat again eight weeks later with an endectocide Treat again eight weeks later with an endectocide
This treatment schedule will result in ultimate parasite control and maximum productivity benefits (Williams et al Agri-Practice 1992 had eight treatments) Note: Trial conducted on stockers. In Your World Regardless of timing/schedule and parasite problems (including flukes, coccidia, Ostertagia and other internal and external parasites) IVOMEC Brand products can combine for an effective SPC program. Strategic Parasite Control It Makes More Sense Than Ever
levels in cattle and in the pasture Strategic Parasite Control pays off Northern Cow/Calf Recommendations Treatment 1 Spring (April or May) Treat cows and calves over 200 pounds (2 months) with IVOMEC EPRINEX or IVOMEC Plus Treatment 2 Summer (July) Treat calves or cows and calves with EPRINEX Treatment 3 Fall (October or at weaning) Treat cows with IVOMEC Pour-On, EPRINEX or IVOMEC Plus
Note: Weaned calves that are retained (stockers, replacement heifers, young bulls) will also need to be treated in the fall. See Slide #40. Southern Cow/Calf Recommendations Treatment 1 Spring (February through May) Treat cows and calves over 200 pounds (2 months) with IVOMEC EPRINEX or IVOMEC Plus Treatment 2 Mid-Summer (July) Treat cows and calves with EPRINEX Treatment 3 Fall (September, October, November) Treat cows and weaned animals with IVOMEC Plus or EPRINEX*
*Weaned calves that are retained (stockers, replacement heifers, young bulls) will need additional treatments. See Slide #41. Northern Plains & South Weanling Recommendations (Stockers, Replacement Heifers, Young Bulls) Treatment 1 Weaning or upon receiving Treat with IVOMEC Plus Treatment 2 Treat again six to eight weeks later (Days 45 to 60) treat with IVOMEC EPRINEX or IVOMEC Plus
Treatment 3 Treat again three months later with EPRINEX or IVOMEC Plus (Day 150), just before breeding season Treatment 4 Treat again three months later with EPRINEX or IVOMEC Plus (Day 240), just after breeding season for replacement heifers Note: Some herds may need additional treatments for maximum profitability. Western Cow/Calf Recommendations (Coastal & Foothills San Francisco Bay)
Treatment 1 Spring (April or May) Treat cows and calves over 200 pounds (2 months) with IVOMEC Plus prior to movement to spring pasture Treatment 2 Fall (November) or weaning Treat cows and fall calves with IVOMEC Plus Treatment 3 Winter (January or February) Treat cows and fall calves with IVOMEC Plus Western Cow/Calf Recommendations (Central Valley and Mountains)
Treatment 1 Spring (March, April, May) Treat cows and calves over 200 pounds (2 months) with IVOMEC Plus Treatment 2 Summer (July) or weaning Treat cows and calves with IVOMEC EPRINEX Treatment 3 Fall/weaning (September to November) Treat cows and weaned calves with IVOMEC Plus or IVOMEC Pour-On NOTE: Weaned calves that are retained (stockers, replacement heifers, young bulls) will need additional treatments.
See Slide #44. Western Weanling Recommendations (Stocker cattle, replacement heifers, young bulls) Treatment 1 Weaning or upon receiving Treat all cattle with IVOMEC Plus Treatment 2 Treat again in six to eight weeks with IVOMEC Plus Treatment 3 Treat again with IVOMEC Plus when moved to spring pasture (fall weaned animals) or at the end of summer grazing (spring weaned animals)
NOTE: Some herds may need additional treatments for maximum profitability. How Much Weight Gain Do You Need to Pay for One of These Control Programs? Cost Comparison of Parasite Control Selling price of cattle $90.00 per 100 lbs. Cost Cost Cost Cost $0.50
$1.00 $0.00 $1.50 of of of of current parasite product labor per head shrink per head shrink per head Days of activity 30 days Cost per day of activity
$0.05000 Additional pounds needed Additional pounds needed per day 1.67 0.05556 Cost Cost Cost Cost of of of of
IVOMEC Plus parasite control labor per head shrink per head shrink per head Days of activity lbs. lbs. $1.58 $1.00 $0.00 $2.58 30 days Cost per day of activity $0.08600
Additional pounds needed Additional pounds needed per day 2.87 0.09556 lbs. lbs. Difference in treatments (total) Difference per day (lbs.) 1.20 0.04000 lbs. lbs.
MERIAL Brand Products for Strategic Parasite Control IVOMEC Plus (ivermectin/clorsulon) IVOMEC (ivermectin) Pour-On IVOMEC 1% Injection IVOMEC EPRINEX
CORID (amprolium) (eprinomectin) Pour-On MERIAL, CORID, EPRINEX and IVOMEC are registered trademarks of Merial. All other brands in capital letters are registered trademarks of their respective holders. 2005 Merial Limited. Duluth, GA. All rights reserved. (7/05)
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