Filters can be used to emphasize a particular color, may have emotional or symbolic impact Low Key
High Contrast The Dominant The object in the frame to which the viewers eye is first drawn
May be indicated by size or color Often of great (sometimes symbolic) importance Placement of Characters or Objects within a Frame
Dominant characters, more important characters occupy more space Top = powerful, dominant Bottom = powerless, weak, less important Left and right sides of = placing characters here
suggests their insignificance or may be used to suggest danger , the unknown (We do not know what is beyond the edge of the frame.) Most important object may be placed beyond the edges of the frame especially if associated with
mystery or death Framing The amount of space of within the frame has symbolic meaning Tight frame close-up shots, crowded shots = lack
of freedom Loose frame = freedom Proxemic Patterns Proxemic patterns = the relationship of characters within a given space
The greater the distance between the camera and the character, the greater the sense of emotional distance. The smaller the distance between the camera and the character, the greater the sense of emotional
involvement. The distance between characters also implies their emotional relationship. Staging Position
Characters position in relation to the camera Full front (facing camera) great emotional involvement of viewer with actor Quarter turn (slightly turned away from camera) most popular position intimacy yet less emotional
involvement Profile (looking off frame) Character is unaware of being observed Three-quarter turn (only a small portion of the face is visible) Character is unfriendly, antisocial
Back to camera lack of involvement, mystery Composition Composition refers to the way in which the visual elements of a frame are arranged or put
together. Frames in films are often arranged the way that paintings are arranged. Lines may be used to direct the viewers eye. Diagonal lines convey a sense of movement, tension Lines may point to most important element in the
scene Recurrent patterns, shapes Depth Films are usually arranged on three planes:
Foreground Objects in the foreground usually provide important information about a scene or the film, foreshadowing Midground Background
Use of three planes give film a sense of depth. Placement of objects, characters on different planes changes the meaning of objects, characters
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