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Project Management: Principles, Processes and Practice 4th edition These slides are support material for Project Management 4th edition. Lecturers using the book as a set text may freely use these slides in class, and may distribute them to students in their course only. These slides may not be posted on university library sites or other channels which are accessible to students in other courses, the university at large or the general public. Stephen Hartley 2018 www.creativecorporatesolutions.com.au [email protected] slide 1 Welcome to the PowerPoint presentation

While every attempt has been made to make this presentation exhaustive, we encourage you to modify, create and/or amend these slides to suit your particular need. And at all times, please Stephen Hartleys copyright. pag e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid e 2 Chapter 1: Project Management An adaptable body of knowledge pag

1 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid e 3 Chapter overview Global knowledge, best-practice, methodologies A mix of professional disciplines Compliance frameworks Strategy direction and operational priorities Complexity Uncertainty Change Risk

pag 3 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid e 4 Unwrapping project management pag 6 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018

slid e 5 What exactly is management? Planning Leading Organising Controlling Is it more than this? pag 14 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018

slid e 6 What exactly is project management? Identifying, planning, scheduling and controlling the project requirements Negotiating the agreed trade-off between time , budget, resources and scope Managing change initiatives over time Managing changing stakeholder expectations Scheduling an agreed solution to a specific need, problem or opportunity Balancing task and resource decisions (Microsoft project) Creating a unique product or service through a temporary endeavour (PMBOK) pag

15 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid e 7 Project management principles Identifying, analysing and communicating the real business need Direct involvement and input from all key stakeholders Commitment to planning the project in iterative and revised detail Defining, agreeing and measuring the targeted benefits Evidence of applied governance measure Agreeing on specified and measured outputs Proactive decision-making involving all stakeholders (as required) Direction, guidance and mentoring from a senior management project

group/ committee pag 16 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid e 8 Wanted: The ideal project manager Appointed to manage the project throughout the life-cycle Develop and monitor the iterative project plan and associated documents Oversee the estimating tasks and scheduling activities Manage, negotiate and communicate the project scope (inclusions and exclusions)

Manage project resource assignments, training and reassignment Manage the project schedule and project budget Manage stakeholder expectations Manage procurement and contracts pag 17 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid e 9 Wanted: The ideal project leader Range of personal traits deemed to be worthy of effective leaders, including energy, integrity, empathy, intelligence and honesty

Shared focus on the task (getting the job done) and focus on the people (performing the tasks) Ability to respond to situations and/or contingent factors and variables, and adopt an appropriate leadership style (including the surrounding culture, the urgency, the experience and maturity of the team, and the nature of the task itself) pag 18 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 10 e Management and leadership

pag 25 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 11 e The art of delegation Level 1: Report back all the information you collect and I will decide on the next step. Level 2: Report back all the information you collect, let me know what the options are and recommend one for me to decide. Level 3: Let me know what action you want to take and wait for my approval. Level 4: Let me know what action you want to take and do it unless I say otherwise.

Level 5: Take action and let me know what you did. Level 6: Take action and decide whether you need to tell me. pag 26-7 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 12 e Competing project management methodologies Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) PRINCE2 Agile Lean Project Practitioner

pag 27 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 13 e PMBOK knowledge/process areas [Part 1] pag 30 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018

slid 14 e PMBOK knowledge/process areas [Part 2] pag 31 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 15 e Identifying life-cycle inputs and

outputs Staged evolution of the project Some examples o concept, planning, execution, finalisation o feasibility, design, production, installation, handover o problem, options, planning, development, completion, benefits realisation Progressive (iterations) development, scheduling, tracking and completion pag 43 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 16 e The benefits of using project life-cycles

Provides an overriding narrative of the total project Limits and orders the project s progress through clearly defined stages (some might call these decision gates) Provides points of reference against which stakeholders can assess progress Facilitates appropriate levels of governance throughout the project Enables an overview of the total project to be maintained and in perspective Allows for all project tasks to be correctly identified and partitioned under the appropriate stage of work pag 43, 46 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 17 e

Tracing failure and success pag 47 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 18 e Chapter 2: Organisational capability Emerging strategy, justification and capability pag 52

e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 19 e Chapter overview Anyone can have an idea, although an idea by itself doesnt automatically qualify to become a project Ideas are linked to change, change is linked to strategy and strategy is linked to both project and operational work Can project and operational work be delineated clearly and managed cooperatively within the project organisation? Are there issues of classifying projects and determining what the dividing criteria should be, as one size doesnt fit all Projects should support and demonstrate the strategic direction and dialogue of the organisation

Projects are all about change, both in a physical deliverable sense of the word and in the expectations of the stakeholders that also change pag 54 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 20 e Deconstructing strategy pag 55 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018

slid 21 e The role of an inspiring strategy Involve corporate management Identify and exploit differential strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats Be future, value and results oriented Be integrated organisation wide Provide coherence and momentum Be qualitative in design Have a relative long- term focus Target action- oriented, measurable activities pag 57-8 e

Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 22 e SWOT analysis pag 60 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 23 e Revisiting operational reality

New workplaces and new workforces are changing the traditional operational footprint within organisations Considered by some as the backwater of corporate activities, managing functional or work- unit level operations on a daily, weekly or annual basis is essential to lift the productivity of the organisation the true measure of how well operational areas perform Overlaps can and will occur between what strategy and operations involve pag 61 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 24 e

Maintaining the credibility and process of change The vision before the plans and programs Without a sensible vision, any change initiative can easily dissolve into a list of confusing and incompatible projects pag 65, 67 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 25 e Justifying the strategic decision Investment return Product mix diversity

Operating necessity Cost efficiency Regulated compliance Customer advantage Interrelated projects Profitability growth pag 69 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 26 e Non-numeric selection Sacred cow Operating necessity

Competitive necessity Product line extension Comparative benefit Qualitative checklist pag 71-3 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 27 e Numeric selection Payback period Return on investment (ROI) Net present value (NPV)

Project weighted evaluation matrix pag 73-4 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 28 e Project classifications Any of the following could be potential criteria to help classify different projects: planning contractual obligations scheduled time quality standards

budget forecast scope revisions risk exposure project manager stakeholders involved methodology organisation impact communications strategy benefits in measurement change controls formal evaluation pag 78 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 29

e Building the business case Documents whether or not the idea is viable in terms of the required investment (which doesnt just have to be financial) Will define the business need, problem or opportunity in detail, analyse the different options, identify the costs, benefits and risks, and put forward a recommendation to proceed with or postpone the project Potential options are evaluated against a set of criteria to help determine the viability of a particular option proceeding Can be used to prioritise multiple projects Once approved, the business case will trigger the project proposal or charter pag 79 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018

slid 30 e Portfolio, program and projects pag 82 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 31 e Organisational maturity pag

83 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 32 e Organisational project management maturity pag 86 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid

33 e Individual competence pag 87 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 34 e Knowledge competencies Scope management Time management Cost management

Quality management Risk management Communications management Human resource management Stakeholder management Procurement management Integration management pag 88 e Project management body of knowledge Project life- cycle management Project management process groups Projects, programs and portfolios

Project management office (PMO) Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 35 e Performance competencies Initiating a project Planning a project Executing a project Monitoring and controlling a project Closing a project pag 88-9 e

Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 36 e Personal competencies Communicating: matching intent with outcome with all stakeholders Leading: balancing direction and support Managing: administering compliance Judgement: using perception, discernment and cognition Results: being effective in realizing activities and objectives Professionalism: demonstrating ethics, respect and honesty pag 89 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018

slid 37 e Project organisational structures While there are a number of hybrid organisational structures from which to select, lets focus on the three most popular structures adopted by the project fraternity Functional Matrix Projectised pag 91-2 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018

slid 38 e Choosing the right project organisational structure Projects are about bringing resources together to realise a shared outcome. They are about: vision: where are we going? team ownership: buy- in, whats in it for me? balanced skill sets: people ready to replace each other appropriate team roles: the right person doing the right job accepted and delegated responsibility and accountability pag 95 e

Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 39 e Project governance Accountabilitythe capacity to call people to account for their actions Transparencyvisible and open processes Predictabilityuniform compliance and enforcement within laws and regulations Participationstakeholder input and reality checking pag 96 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018

slid 40 e Justifying the governance framework An agreed, formal and reported alignment between strategic organisation and all projects Appropriate and communicated investment decisions Ongoing performance reporting requirements Measured organisation value analysis Organisation-wide compliance, coherence and commitment Identification and proactive management of all forms of risk A matching of capability with requirement Independent and informed oversight of project performance and progress pag

98 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 41 e Project management office Supporting the project life-cycle activities Focusing on functional impacts maintaining the project management software system and tools Providing capability development Processing and responding to queries and requests Providing ongoing advice, support and guidance Coordinating all the lessons learned Reporting on project performance, trends and escalation issues Maintaining all the methodology documentation, processes,

standards and procedures. pag 101 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 42 e Culture and its organisational impact Power culture: the practice of formal, hierarchical authority to manage the political landscape, competition, conflict and communication Role culture: the practice of formal, designated accountability and responsibility, adhering to regulations, laws or other operating procedures

Task culture: the practice of knowledge management, merit- based assignment, self- motivation and performance review Personal culture: the practice of recognising needs, professional development, collaboration and satisfaction pag 103 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 43 e Chapter 3: Stakeholder management Strategies for continuous improvement pag

107 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 44 e Identifying stakeholders pag 113 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 45

e Sponsor activities and expectations pag 114 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 46 e Project steering group (PSG) pag 115

e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 47 e Project manager pag 116 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 48 e

Project team pag 117 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 49 e Mapping potential power + Power/interest run political interference active decision-making model appropriate behaviours escalating appropriate issues

support change-control participate collaboratively pag 119-20 e - Power/interest short-circuiting procedures bullying other stakeholders critical and judgemental white-anting the project ignoring instructions creating disruption Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 50

e Stakeholder power and interest matrix pag 122 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 51 e Mapping potential interest Minimal effort: as required updates (bulletin boards, email broadcast) Keep satisfied: maintain and reward their confidence (regular updates, resolve their issues)

Keep informed: observe and respond (direct contact, solicit ideas, provide feedback) Manage closely: scheduled consultation and engagement (coalition of allies, role models, actively seek them out) pag 122-3 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 52 e Plan stakeholder management Given their interest in the project, a clear, actionable plan is required to now reach and interact with these stakeholders in support of the projects interests

individual expectations and project objectives will need to be managed throughout the project life-cycle proactive in capturing relevant information from each stakeholder based on who they are and their different responsibilities documented in a suitable format that can be readily disseminated, tracked and updated, as the project progresses, to all who need it pag 125 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 53 e RACI Responsible (nominate the stakeholder charged with doing the required activities)

Approve (nominate the stakeholder who needs to approve all decisions) Consult (nominate the stakeholder who needs to be consulted prior, during or after an action) Inform (nominate the stakeholder who needs to be kept informed of progressive actions) pag 127 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 54 e PARIS Participate (nominate the stakeholder charged with doing the

required activities) Approve (nominate the stakeholder who needs to approve all decisions) Responsible (nominate the stakeholder charged with doing the required activities) Inform (nominate the stakeholder who needs to be kept informed of progressive actions) Signoff (nominate the stakeholder who provides official signoff) pag 127-8 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 55 e SEAM

Unawareno awareness of project and potential impacts Resistantaware, but resistant to change Neutralaware, although neither supportive nor resistant Supportiveaware, and supportive of change Leadingaware, and actively engaged in contributing to project success pag 128 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 56 e Manage stakeholder engagement

Gaining ongoing commitment at appropriate project stages to the success of the project Ensuring the achievement of project goals through negotiation and communication Anticipating future problems and associated risks Clarifying, resolving and/or escalating issues Anticipating reactions to different situations Liaising with the project sponsor pag 130 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 57 e Control stakeholder

engagement Ongoing evaluation and adjustment Determining the current stage of the life-cycle Nominating periodic review timeframes Knowing what it is you actually want to measure Assessing whether roles, responsibilities or information needs have changed Determining what the percentage of work/project complete is pag 131 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 58 e

Chapter 4: Scope management Delivering on changing expectations pag 135 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 59 e Planning scope management A scope management plan documents how the project scope will be defined, validated and controlled (PMBOK, 2013). In other words, it establishes the direction and guidance parameters for how the scope itself (project or product/service) will be managed Drawing on lessons learned, organisational- wide historical knowledge and

project specific requirements, the scope management plan could reference: agreeing the format to record the scope nominating the stakeholders responsible capturing, managing and controlling the scope establishing the level of decomposition in the WBS pag 138 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 60 e Collecting the requirements Business requirements (higher level needs) Stakeholder requirements (people, group or entity needs)

Functional or technical requirements (required behaviour) Non-functional requirements or quality of service requirements (reliability, support, safety, security, etc.) Transition requirements (how to move from a present state to a future state) Quality requirements (validating criteria) pag 140 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 61 e Techniques for collecting requirements Interviews

Focus groups Questionnaires Observation Brainstorming pag 141-2 e Workshops Storyboards Prototypes Context design Document analysis Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 62

e Collecting the requirements pag 144 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 63 e Defining the scope Inclusions explicit, written confirmation that the deliverable is required Exclusions explicit, written confirmation that the deliverable is not required

pag 145 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 64 e Defining the scope MoSCoW (Agile requirement technique) must have should have could have wont have pag

146 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 65 e Expectations vs. capability pag 153 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 66

e Decomposing the project scope The complexity of the project The exhaustive information captured (inclusions and exclusions) The accuracy required in the estimates The extent of quality definitions, standards and requirements The amount of management required (e.g. supervision, autonomy) The degree of risk involved The extent of any contractual performance obligations The required level of measurement and control The amount of prescriptive detail required pag 154 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid

67 e Graphical work breakdown structure pag 156 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 68 e Defining and documenting the activities Project scope (visual portrayal)

Internal and/or external dependencies (mandatory and discretionary sequencing) Grouped key stages (manageable) Hierarchical structure (sub-units of work) Different levels of detail (estimate accuracy) Asymmetrical pathways (relationships) Topdown approach (ties the project together). pag 157 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 69 e Building in objective validation criteria

Issuing compliance certificates Measuring work performance Analysing change requests Conducting variance analysis Undertaking physical inspections Conducting quality testing Performing in line with quality standards Writing project reports pag 160 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 70 e Satisfying client expectations

pag 161 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 71 e Controlling the scope Changes regarding stakeholders Unexpected budget cutbacks Accelerated delivery New regulatory standards Changes in legislation Resource unavailability Incomplete specifications

Late design revisions Prototype testing feedback pag 162-3 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 72 e Controlling the scope Causes of scope creep: imprecise language inaccurate estimates lack of third-party review no pattern, structure or chronological order omitting/ignoring special instructions

lack of user involvement insufficient planning unavailability of resources pag 165-6 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 73 e Chapter 5: Time management Developing and controlling the schedule pag 169 e

Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 74 e Planning the schedule management approach Rationale for managing the schedule Perceived obstacles or constraints impacting Stakeholders responsible for the different processes and documentation Appropriate control thresholds triggering an intervention Timing and format of schedule reports (against the plan) Processes required to update the schedule Advising stakeholders of the different risk, cost, quality and scope decisions with implications for the schedule

Project management software for developing the schedule Tools to be used (e.g. WBS, milestones, Gantt chart) pag 172 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 75 e Defining the project activities Meaningful description (consider the verbnoun format) Unique identifierfor example, activity code, WBS number Activity duration All logical relationshipsfor example, predecessor and successor Provision for lead and/or lag time Resource requirements

Underlying assumptions and/or relevant constraints Reference standards Required resources pag 173 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 76 e Estimating activity durations Pre-determined Expert judgement Analogous Group decision-making Unit rates

Published commercial data Parametric Vendor bids Reserve Three-point (wide-band Delphi) pag 174-5 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 77 e Estimating activity durations Record your confidence level (+/- where appropriate) Record how the calculation was determined Record the broad, provisional or absolute nature

Record all underlying assumptions Record all impacting constraints Record any contingency amounts Record an optimistic, pessimistic and likely range Record all source data Record details of all stakeholders involved pag 176 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 78 e Identifying the resource capability

pag 178 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 79 e The resource matrix Name: individual name or generic label (e.g. plumbers) Type: labour, material, etc Group: the group to whom the resource belongs Location: the physical (geographical) location Capability: skills, expertise, prior

experience, etc Quantity: how many/how much will be required pag 178 e Availability: the actual free time they have Calendar: what dates are excluded Rate: what are their normal hourly rate, overtime or other costs Report: to whom does the resource currently report to Development: will any additional training be required? Evaluation: performance evaluations from past projects

Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 80 e Experimenting with the sequence Finishstart relationship: activities will start when other activities have finished (FS) Startstart relationship: activities will start when other activities have started (SS) Finishfinish relationship: activities will finish when other activities have finished (FF) Startfinish relationship: activities will finish when other activities have started (SF) pag 181

e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 81 e Finish-start relationship pag 182 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 82 e

Finish-finish relationship pag 182 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 83 e Start-start relationship pag 183 e

Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 84 e Start-finish relationship pag 183 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 85 e Lead and lag time

Lead time o An intentional acceleration in the starting/completing the successor tasks o Removes time from the schedule Lag time o An intentional delay in starting/completing the successor task o Adds time to the schedule pag 184-5 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 86 e Network diagrams

pag 187 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 87 e The Gantt chart pag 192 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018

slid 88 e Working with the critical path The tasks that must start on time for the project to finish on time o no delays allowed Longest path/s throughout the project schedule o one path takes 4 days, the other path 6 days = 6 days is the critical path The tasks driving the scheduled end date of the project The path with zero float o float is the amount of time a task can move without delaying the project pag 195 e

Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 89 e The critical path or the critical chain? PMBOK (2013) suggests, the resource-constrained critical path is known as the critical chain, and takes into account the effects of resource allocation, resource optimisation, resource levelling and activity duration uncertainty on the critical path Derived from the theory of constraints (TOC), the critical chain has a resource focus, whereas the critical path has a time focus Takes the contingency out of the activities and creates buffers in the schedule to accommodate likely overrunswhich effectively gives the project team tighter deadlines to comply with pag 198

e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 90 e Controlling the schedule pag 201 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 91 e

Chapter 6: Cost management Ending the reliance on the budget variance pag 206 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 92 e Planning for cost management The source of funds (and associated access) Details of the reporting formats, frequency and distribution Internal organisational finance protocols and the accounting system Identification of percentage variation thresholds triggering action

Provision for contingency funding (and associated access) Approval procedures Accepted level of accuracy in determining realistic cost estimates Known units of measure defined for each resource Degree of precision required Specified performance measurement technique pag 209 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 93 e Estimating project costs Consider the following examples to begin with (adapted from PMBOK , 2013): project proposal

work breakdown structure (WBS) contractual conditions project schedule reflecting the planned activity sequencing chart of accounts required quality standards and special conditions asset registers reflecting whole of life costing costs associated with mitigating risk exposure pag 210-1 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 94 e Classification of costs Fixed or variable

Direct or indirect Recurring or non-recurring Regular or expedited Internal or external Lease or purchase Labour or material Estimate or reserve pag 211-2 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 95 e Estimating techniques Pre-determined

Expert judgement Analogous Group decision-making Unit rates Published commercial data Parametric Vendor bids Reserve Three-point (wide-band Delphi) pag 212-3 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 96 e

The role of budgets in cost management pag 217 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 97 e Approaches to budgets Traditional: the previous years level of performance is the foundation for next years figures Zero based: ignores previous results as each activity and outlay is justified; each activity is recorded with zero spending to begin with Program: activities are grouped together for projecting costs generated

by each program or major activity. Top down: based on pooling the knowledge of senior managers and past results Bottom up: individual task budgets are estimated in detail by the people directly responsible for doing or managing the work pag 217-8 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 98 e Time phased budget pag 219

e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 99 e Comparison of budgets with actual results Any number of valid reasons could explain the variances, including: original estimates not being revised changes in market and/or vendor prices mathematical errors in calculating costs tasks requiring re-work cost differentials between replacement resources higher than expected inspection and testing costs revisions to the specification (up or down)

rescheduling work outside normal work hours (overtime, penalty rates, etc.) pag 220 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 100 e Ingredients in a sample project budget Budget cost Estimation technique Confidence level Assumptions Constraints

Contingency reserve % work complete pag 221 e Actual cost % actual cost Cost variance Variance percentage Acceptance tolerance Corrective action Budget remaining Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 101

e Earned value management Value is a measure of performance (progress) in terms of: o scope (scope baseline) o schedule (schedule baseline) o budget metrics (cost baseline) Progress and performance are measured (in cost, not in units of time), assessed and controlled against these three independent variables pag 224-5 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 102

e Initial earned value calculations Planned value (PV): the estimated cost of the scheduled work: Earned value (EV): the value of the work performed to date, indicating what amount of the budget has been earned: Actual costs (AC): the invoiced costs incurred in performing the completed work to date. pag 225 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 103 e

Planned and earned value; and actual costs pag 226 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 104 e Schedule and cost variances pag 228 e

Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 105 e Schedule and cost performance index pag 229 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 106 e

Crashing the schedule Normal duration: the expected schedule duration originally agreed Crash duration: the revised (read compressed) time nominated Normal cost: the agreed cost for the original schedule duration Crash cost: the revised cost to resource the schedule compression pag 233-4 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 107

e Chapter 7: Quality management Achieving technical excellence and customer satisfaction pag 238 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 108 e Planning for quality management Performance

Features Reliability Conformance Durability Serviceability Aesthetics Perception Best practice pag 240 e Proprietary standard International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Benchmarking Standard operating procedures Government regulation, statutory body, code of ethics

Specification Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 109 e Planning for quality management The quality methodology (or approach) to be followed Relevant standards, rules or guidelines to be adopted Review of the product/service descriptions Monitoring and inspection regimes Scope, schedule and cost baselines External agency regulations Identification of acceptance criteria Change control

Risk-mitigation procedures Confirmation of roles and responsibilities pag 243 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 110 e Performing quality assurance Adoption of an internationally certifiable process An innate and public culture that says quality is what we do A spirit of experimentation and a creative climate Internal systems, procedures and practices to build quality into the start of the project Processes to eliminate waste, variation and excess

Avenues for open, honest and constructive feedback Opportunities for continuous improvement Transparent relationships between internal and external clients and suppliers pag 246 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 111 e Getting the quality documentation right Problems include: a lack of standardised processes omitting some of the required

procedures a lack of familiarity with the procedure poorly sequenced procedures out-of-date procedures an inability to map end-to-end processes ambiguous language pag 247 e inconsistent levels of detail over-reliance on verbal explanations failing to account for variations inaccurate documentation different formatting styles an inability to measure and communicate results

failing to involve all key stakeholders Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 112 e Diagnostic and analytical quality tools Control charts Pareto charts Checklists Sampling Audits Inspections Change requests Lessons learned

pag 249-50 e Benchmarking Meetings Circling Histograms (bar charts) Cause and effect diagrams Bone diagram Flow chart Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 113 e

Quality assurance and control tools pag 251 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 114 e Quality assurance and control tools pag 251 e

Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 115 e Quality assurance and control tools pag 252 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 116 e

Quality assurance and control tools pag 252 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 117 e Quality assurance and control tools pag 253

e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 118 e Controlling the costs of quality Consider the following examples of appraisal and failure costs: quality planning processes provision of maintenance and safety equipment ongoing technical support repair, replacement, recall, warranty, waste, insurance liability, damages record storage and retrieval independent external audits calibration of testing equipment (depreciation of test equipment) supervision of inspection activities down-time with lost production

completion certificates pag 254-5 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 119 e Controlling the costs of quality Tolerance (range of acceptable results) Control limits (boundaries of common variation) Variations between: o planned and actual technical performance o planned and actual schedule performance o planned and actual cost performance

pag 257 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 120 e Continuous improvement Regular performance reporting Meetings and debriefs Decision gates and approval processes Walkthroughs and peer reviews Scenario analysis Evaluation reports Suggestion boxes User feedback

pag 258 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 121 e Chapter 8: Human resource management Developing and maintaining individual and team performance pag 262 e

Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 122 e Planning for human resource management Internal or external acquisition strategy Roles and responsibilities Reporting relationships Acquisition and release timetables Identification of professional development needs Team-building strategies Plans for recognition and rewards Geographical location Resource calendars Performance management procedures pag

265 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 123 e Planning for human resource management Organisational chart Stakeholder responsibility matrix Position (role) description Responsibility assignment matrix Training register Personnel files Contractor agreement Performance reviews

Application forms pag 266 e Social media Rsums Aptitude tests Psychological tests Behavioural interviews Reference checks Employment contracts Organisational standard processes Lessons learned log Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid

124 e Acquiring the multigenerational project team Demonstrate empathy (where you genuinely canthis should never be faked) Encourage continuous, open and honest feedback Give everyone an opportunity to shine in what they are good at Identify what the common ground is Praise the effort, not just the result Avoid rushing in to rescue Dont over- stimulate, as boredom often leads to imagination Develop capacity, not dependency Provide an environment where continual learning is encouraged Provide choices and pathways pag 268 e

Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 125 e Developing the project team clear, communicated and recognised long-term goals clear, communicated and accepted objectives unqualified opportunities for success tolerance for calculated risk mutual appreciation of members individual and broad skills defined, communicated and accepted roles explicit, discussed and endorsed procedures open, honest and continuous communication supported leadership pag 271 e

Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 126 e Valuing project team diversity Project teams will consist of unique individuals drawn from a very diverse demographic pool Need to acknowledge, understand and value these differences Harness those differences to deliver the project Creates an inclusive environment Promotes equality, values diversity pag 272 e

Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 127 e Teams and their evolution Five stages of team development Form Storm Norm Perform Adjourn pag 275-6 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018

slid 128 e Learning and development for teams taking on projects online learning webinars formal study job rotation distance learning internal courses mentoring private research observation professional reading pag

284 e acting in higher positions committee work shadowing delegated duties work experience special assignments peer-assist programs professional memberships role models conferences simulations Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 129 e

Managing the project team Energise the team members to complete their scheduled work (on time, on budget, as specified) Direct the team towards meeting deadlines, milestones and other constraints Draw the team together cohesively Enable the team to function in self-directed mode Allow the team members to self-correct much of their own work pag 286 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 130 e

Measuring team performance While project performance could be assessed against any number of traditional organisational performance criteria (key performance indicators), within the project context these should be extended to include a number of result-oriented and agreed upon criteria, including: performance against the objectives performance against the schedule performance against the budget performance against the scope pag 287 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 131

e Reinforcing the performance pag 293 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 132 e Conflict management What is conflict? o issues, complaints, broken promises, misunderstandings, false expectations, misinformation, communication problems, self-interest, dishonesty, hidden agendas, insecurity, personality clashes, pressure

Both positive and negative o Exploring new ideas vs. Ignoring alternative suggestions o Time to reconsider options vs. legal action for contract breach o Make some minor changes vs. cessation of all work pag 294-5 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 133 e Is there a single way to resolve all conflict? Avoid/withdraw strategies (low assertion, low cooperation)

Accommodate/smooth style (low assertion, high cooperation) Force/compete style (high assertion, low cooperation) Problem-solve/collaborate style (high assertion, high cooperation) Compromise/reconcile style (mid assertion, mid cooperation) pag 296-8 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 134 e Chapter 9: Communications management Matching intent with outcome

pag 303 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 135 e Planning your project communications An extensive glossary of terms Protocols for creating, securing, distributing and storing information Stakeholders involved in receiving the information Methods used to keep stakeholders informed and up to date Any communication constraints governed by legislation regulation or organisational policies Escalation steps to deal with issues

Team members authorised to release information Nomination of specific document requirements pag 308 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 136 e Managing project communications Learn how to separate: fact fantasy folklore feelings

pag 309 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 137 e The project meeting pag 314 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018

slid 138 e Kick-off meeting Detailing the project objectives, expectation, deliverables, outcomes and benefits Meeting the client or their representative Reviewing all the scope inclusions and exclusions Clarifying the roles and responsibilities of executive, project, operational, technical, team and/or other support members Explaining the project management methodology (or framework) to be followed Walking through the project management plan (and any subsidiary plans) Discussing different views between the stakeholders and/or team members pag 317 e

Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 139 e Kick-out meeting This is the meeting that formally brings the project to a close Projects can close at any time, completed or not. Final meeting ensure that all aspects of the project are formally closed out prior to the team being disbanded pag 318 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid

140 e The project performance reports Evaluate the following: 0/110 milestone standard dollar expenses 50/50 rule level of effort equivalent units number of compliance inspections, testing and/or reporting remaining duration of the project number of deliverables completed and/or handed over pag 320 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018

slid 141 e Project performance reports Convey accurate, complete and timely information to the different stakeholders Provide an possible escape route to the project personnel for a mismanaged project Reflect the true facts on the projects progression & encourage early detection of problems Enable problem-solving Facilitate decision-making Track all the scope changes and revisions Confirm that the project is on track in all respects pag 321 e

Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 142 e Progress report Project, task and milestone commencement Project, task and milestone progression Project, task and milestone completion Budget and cash flow consumed by the progress Conformance with the specification Changes to scope proposed, assessed and justified Approvals received Resource assignments reflecting work-in-progress pag 325 e

Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 143 e Status report The focus of the status report will be on the current position the project holds in relation to its overall plan. That is, is the project running to schedule, on budget and as specified, and is it fully resourced. where the project, tasks and milestones are in relation to the status date where the budget and cash flow expenditure are as at the status date what the specification conformance is as at the status date what the resource loading and assignments are as at the status date pag 326

e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 144 e Forecast completion report Forecast completion date/time and/or revisions Pending and foreseeable risks Approvals outstanding and/or required impacting completion Forecast completion budget and/or projected cost overruns Anticipated scope revisions Issues requiring resolution and/or escalation Forecast completion specification pag 327

e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 145 e Controlling communications management Issue register Lessons learned log Performance reports Earned value reports Correspondence register Milestone reports Stakeholder feedback Risk registers

pag 329 e Variation registers Presentations Project plan Meeting minutes Update schedules Revised budgets Change requests Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 146 e Chapter 10: Risk management

Proactively managing uncertainty, complexity and change pag 333 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 147 e Mapping inherent strategic risk Risk averse (low tolerance), where the intent is avoidance with the focus on refraining from perceived risk activities Risk neutral (neutral tolerance), where the intent is caution, with the focus on remaining impartial to perceived risk activities Risk seeking (high tolerance), where the intent is acceptance with the

focus on engaging in risk activities pag 337 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 148 e Formalising the risk management The methodology (approach, tools andplan data sources) to be used Roles and responsibilities for stakeholders, project manager and team members Estimates of, and access to, additional funding to cover contingency and management reserves

Scheduling the frequency of risk-management activities throughout the life-cycle Format for analysing examples of risk activities Qualitative (descriptive) and quantified (numeric) definitions of risk probability and risk impact Probability and impact matrix Revised stakeholder tolerances Reporting formats nominating how risk-management activities will be documented, analysed and communicated Audit trail of tracking documents pag 338 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 149 e

Identifying the categories of risk Internal within the influence and control by the project stakeholders o inaccurate estimates o unauthorised scope changes o lack of accountability o poor performance reporting External outside the influence and control by the project stakeholders o economic cycles o legislative regulations o contractor performance o market forces pag 339 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018

slid 150 e Generic sources of risk Competition activity Politic agendas Economic performance Technology impacts Marketing appeals Legal matters Financial markets Organisational practices Resource capability pag 340-1 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018

slid 151 e The tools and techniques Change registers Specification details Simulations Expert opinion Feasibility studies Incident reports Checklists pag 343 e Brainstorming

Scope, time and cost baselines Commercial databases Interviews Project completion reports Process flow charts Cause and effect diagrams Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 152 e Performing qualitative and quantitative analysis Following the risk-identification stage, the next two stages require a more detailed analysis to reduce the level of uncertainty and/or impact facing the project, and to enable everyone to focus on the high-priority risks

To achieve this, attention will now turn to: o the probability of the risk occurring o the impact of the risk on the project o the priority (or ranking) of the risk pag 344 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 153 e Probability of project risk pag 345

e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 154 e Impact of project risk pag 345 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 155 e

The probability and impact matrix Low: values from 1 to 6 will be treated by existing SOPs. Medium: values from 8 to 12 will require direct intervention by the project manager. High: values from 16 to 25 will require immediate escalation and intervention by senior management (project steering group and/or sponsor). pag 348 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 156 e

Planning risk responses Accept the risk Mitigate the risk Avoid the risk pag 350 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 157 e Risk-response strategies Negative risks or threats accept mitigate

avoid transfer Positive risks or opportunities exploit enhance share accept pag 349-51 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 158 e Assigning ownership Risk management is always shared

Everyone takes an active role in ensuring that capable resources are assigned to action and monitor the response strategy: o identifying the triggering events that set the response strategy in effect o carrying out the response strategy o presenting an update at the project risk meetings o updating the project scope, schedule and cost baselines and management plans o monitoring the risk register for additional, related risks o conducting further quantitative risk analysis o evaluating the effectiveness of the response strategy pag 353 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 159 e

Controlling project risk Project assumptions are still valid Performance data are still accurate and current Planned results compare favourably with actual results New risks have been identified, current risks reassessed and risks closed out Adherence to the risk management plan has been confirmed Contingency reserves for both schedule and cost performance are available Alternative strategies have been canvassed and analysed Corrective action has been implemented The project management plan and associated documents have been revised The lessons learned databases have been updated pag 355-6 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 160

e Chapter 11: Procurement management Embedding value into the project pag 362 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 161 e Planning procurement management Supplying the project with a range of goods and services as specified

Improved relationships with key suppliers Balancing output with both value with quality Advancing the interests of the buying organisation Increasing accountability in the supply chain Demonstrating value for money Insulating the project parents cost structure and financial exposure Enabling the project parent to focus on its core competencies Allowing greater access to state-of-the-art technology, premium materials and workplace expertise pag 364-5 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 162 e

The initial procurement decision pag 365 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 163 e Components of the procurement plan Blended approach is required that could be reflected in the project procurement management plan, Details exactly how the project will acquire what it needs, the documents created, the processes managed and how the contracts will be administered and closed out: o specifying contract deliverables

o information on the prevailing market capability o preference for a single or multiple source supply o what the tender process is o preference for contract types o agreement of the pricing model o potential risks associated with contractual arrangements o escalation hierarchy for alternative dispute resolution (ADR) o suite of procurement documents (form and format) pag 366 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 164 e Selecting potential suppliers

Number of competitors that might be interested Prior relationship with the project client Degree of risk (technical, financial, reputational, ...) in delivering on the clients requirements Whether the mission, value and/or culture are consistent with those of the client Whether there is some form of synergy with the clients standard operating procedures and those of the suppliers Whether their existing supplier capability is sufficient Whether the project will improve/harm the suppliers credibility, goodwill and reputation The inherent value of the project to the supplier Whether the supplier has confidence in the reliability of estimates provided by the client pag 370 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 165

e Evaluating potential suppliers Understanding the requirement Technical capability Management capability Financial capability Resource capability Price pag 370-1 e Life-cycle cost Past performance Warranty Legislative compliance Intellectual property

References Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 166 e Contractual considerations Offer capable of being accepted Acceptance capable of being communicated Consideration something of value in return for the promise Intention parties agree to be bound Mutuality neither party is disadvantaged

Capacity no party is under duress Legality isnt an illegal activity pag 372-3 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 167 e Popular pricing models Fixed price Cost-reimbursable Times and material

pag 374 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 168 e Adversarial vs. relational contracting Traditional Legal relationship Regulates transactions Master and servant Adversarial (winlose) Enforce compliance

Formal dispute clause pag 376 e Relational Working relationship Joint goal achievement Open and collaborative Mutual trust (winwin) Contract matter of last resort Facilitated partnering meetings Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 169 e

Conducting procurement activities In some cases, additional discussions and negotiations may also be required to elicit substantiation or additional information. This may help rectify: o significant differences in cost estimates o non-conforming responses (if this provision has been specified) o deficiencies in the statement of work or specification o different technical approaches covering methodologies, techniques, solutions and services o proposed amendment to the contract submitted by the seller o clarification on contractual conditions o performance reporting requirements pag 378 e

Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 170 e Compliant progress claims Facts o Particulars of the claim Clause o Authorisation for the claim Proof o Evidence in support Amount Claimed amount as per the contract

pag 379 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 171 e Contract performance reporting This might entail any of the following activities: efficient handling of any requests for additional information regular comparisons of performance against the plan accurate and timely reporting of performance problems prompt processing of variations information on objectives or deliverables achieved timely implementation of any corrective action required updates on milestones and/or deadlines met

documented and authorised requests for changes to scope (variations) resolution of disputes, escalation and other conflicts pag 381 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 172 e Resolving contractual issues Try cooperation before contractual muscle Watch for early warning signs that something is amiss Maintain close and constant contact with your contractor Consider all viewpoints before locking in your own Park the unnecessary emotion Maintain accurate correspondence registers

Put all communication in writing Adhere to the alternate dispute resolution (ADR) hierarchy: notice of dispute, discussion, meeting, negotiate, mediate, arbitrate, litigate. pag 382-3 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 173 e Discharging the contract actual performance: where exact performance (as agreed under the contract) is performed agreement between the parties: where the contract may contain reference to a clause providing for its own termination upon the occurrence or failure of some specified event

frustration: where performance becomes impossible without fault to either party; in this case, automatic and mutual discharge should occur breach (actual or anticipatory): where one party fails to carry out the obligations as per the contract, or signals that those obligations will not be performed operation of law: where contracts are discharged through bankruptcy, company liquidations or the statute of limitations pag 384 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 174 e Chapter 12: Integration management Unifying a coordinated approach

pag 387 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 175 e Developing the project proposal Initiation document should validate the alignment of the (change) project to the strategic direction of the organisation, while also considering the ongoing operational priorities Document (in broad terms) the organisational need, assumptions, constraints, stakeholder requirements, provisional estimates of both time and money, and high-level risks (among other factors) Project manager must work backwards and review everything that

has taken place to date to gain both a clear appreciation and a growing understanding of what the project is and what it is not pag 390 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 176 e Developing the project management plan Scope management plan Time management plan Cost management plan Quality management plan Human resource management plan

Communications management plan Risk management plan Procurement management plan Stakeholder management plan Integration management plan pag 391 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 177 e Directing and managing the work Ensuring project objectives are accomplished Creating deliverables in line with the planned work

Providing opportunities for the project team to learn and develop Obtaining and allocating the required resources Establishing open communication channels Generating performance reports Engaging with stakeholders Monitoring risk events and treatment responses Documenting the lessons learned pag 392-3 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 178 e Monitoring and controlling the performance

Comparing actual project performance against planned performance (as per the plan) Assessing performance to identify what corrective or preventative actions may be required Recommending appropriate follow-up action Identifying and responding to existing, recurrent or new risks Maintaining accurate records Circulating all the relevant reports and information Verifying the implementation of all approved changes pag 393 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 179 e

Performing integrated change control Project manager is responsible for reviewing all change requests Dont be surprised to learn that these changes are not just limited to the expectations, scope and deliverable side of the equation requests also impact organisational policies, procedures and processes, and risk management With a formalised, agreed and practised integrated change control process in place from the projects inception, the project manager will ensure that only the approved changes are incorporated into the revised baseline pag 394 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 180

e Closing down the project Create and coordinate project close-out plans and schedules Confirm that all outstanding work has been completed Finalise all financial transactions Notify all relevant stakeholders and or functional areas of the projects completion Review all contractual agreements and obligations Confirm that all acceptance criteria nominated have been met Elicit valuable feedback from all stakeholders Resolve any outstanding problems Review the technical, budget and schedule performance Evaluate the appropriateness of the nominated methodology Review all the project team and stakeholder relationships Plan to transfer project team members to other projects or their substantive position pag 395-6 e

Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 181 e Early termination is always an option Project is no longer viable Support for the project has disappeared Success is looking rather doubtful Other options look more attractive Resources do not have the technical competence required Funding has dried up or been reallocated Timeline may not be sufficient to deliver the expected outcome Market has moved and the potential for the project has evaporated Client has indicated that they will no longer accept the project Commercial results will take too long to become profitable Other projects now have a higher priority

pag 395-6 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 182 e Mapping project processes with KRAC Take the opportunity with KRAC to challenge and/or change your processes: K keep (if it works, keep it) R remove (if it doesnt work, remove it) A add (was something missing) C change (what can change)

pag 398 e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 183 e Your next steps Volunteer to work on community or commercial projects Read widely (books, feature articles, peer-reviewed journals) Talk to experienced project professionals Work with a project mentor Clarify your role, authority, responsibility and accountability on your projects Develop and trial your own documentation and practice Consider an appropriate qualification (people still pay for proven experience)

Learn from your (non-terminal) mistakes pag e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 184 e For more information Stephen Hartley MBA Managing Director Creative Corporate Solutions Pty Ltd www.creativecorporatesolutions.com.au [email protected] Stephen is a national project management consultant partnering with private, public and not-for-profit clients. Well-credentialled and credible, Stephen provides consulting, training, facilitating and coaching services combining reality, pragmatism and theory with an engaging and collaborative style.

As one of the leading authors and practitioners in project, contract, audit and risk management, Stephen demonstrates bespoke professionalism in designing, developing and implementing project management solutions, compliance audit protocols, workplace documentation and coaching support. pag e Stephen Hartley, Project Management 4th edition, 2018 slid 185 e

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