WARNING! This presentation may contain information that might actually cause you to think. Socialization
Learning Culture, Building Identity AND Stratification
and Inequality Examining the Implications of Class, Race, and Gender Socialization Socialization
The life-long process of learning culture Agents of socialization Family, schools, work, peer groups, media, religion, etc.
Constructing Identity: The Self The Self (George Herbert Mead) Infants only know the I. Through social interaction, however, they learn the methe self as a distinct object to be perceived by others
Looking Glass Self (Charles Horton Cooley) Sense of who we are that is defined by incorporating the reflected appraisals of others. OR we see ourselves as we think others see us. Becoming who we are,
finding our self, is always a social process. Roles and Identity Formation Roles Expected patterns of behavior for a particular
social status Role Taking Key to our identity and concepts of self because, we often see ourselves from the perspective of others
How do you suppose these people see themselves? Learning Culture and Our Place In It We willingly play the roles we find ourselves in.
P. Berger (1963) We come to accept and expect the position which we occupy. Tastes, hobbies, careers, goals, and aspirations, who we partner with, etc. Switch
Social Stratification Ranking system of groups of people that perpetuates unequal rewards and life chances in society
Systems of Stratification Slavery Economic form of inequality in which some people are the property of others Caste
Hierarchical stratification based on ascription (e.g. elite, warrior, merchant, servant, untouchable) Class Stratification based on wealth, income, education, and occupation; (SES) socioeconomic status.
Theories of Stratification Functionalist Theories Highest rewards (e.g. salaries and prestige) are given to most important positions in society ensuring the most qualified people occupy these
positions Conflict Theories Stratification reflects unequal distribution of power in society that serves the interests of those at the top
Back to socialization Learning Gender Whats the difference between sex and gender?
Sex = reproductive organs, male/female/etc. Gender = socially significant aspects, social construct Gender specific socialization In family In schools
In workplaces Where else? What are some ways in which gender
is learned? We will come back to gender in a bit. Learning Race
Race is a social construct Race is genetically the same as eye color BUT Race is socially significant. As such it shapes
our identity and our social location. In our culture, whiteness has historically been normalized. The default race has privileges Switch!
Racial Inequality and Stratification Racial Prejudice vs. Racism From Beverly Tatums, Why Are All the Black
Kids Sitting Together in the Cafeteria? Racial Prejudice any preconceived opinion, either favorable or unfavorable, based on ones race Racism
a system of institutional policies and cultural messages that is advantageous to white people and disadvantageous to people of color (e.g. housing, jobs) prejudice + power Personal Racial Prejudice vs.
Institutional Racism We often focus on the racist actions of individuals rather than the institutions that maintain and perpetuate racial inequality For example
Disparities in Drug Sentencing as an Example of Institutionalized Racism About 14 million Whites and 2.6 million African Americans report using illegal drugs African Americans represent about 12% of the total
population of drug users, but 38% of those arrested for drug offenses, and 59% of those in state prison for a drug offense African Americans serve virtually as much time in prison for a drug offense (58.7 months) as whites do for a violent offense (61.7 months) (Info from NAACP
and the Sentencing Project) Disparities in Drug Sentencing as an Example of Institutionalized Racism Powder vs. Crack Cocaine Used to be a 100 to 1 disparity in sentencing
As of 2010 Congress voted to change the law to decrease the disparity. They changed it to 18 to 1 disparity in sentencing!!! WHAT!!!? The majority of cocaine users, both crack and powder, are white. But the majority of people
convicted for cocaine are people of color. And crack has historically been concentrated in African American communities. Lets talk a little more about incarceration in the United States:
Incarceration Trends in the US From 1980 to 2008, the number of people incarcerated in America quadrupled-from roughly 500,000 to 2.3 million people Today, the US is 5% of the worlds population and
has 25% of the worlds prisoners Combining the number of people in prison and jail with those under parole or probation supervision, 1 in every 31 adults, or 3.2 percent of the population is under some form of correctional control
Racial Disparities in Incarceration African Americans now constitute nearly 1 million of the total 2.3 million incarcerated population African Americans are incarcerated at nearly six times the rate of whites
Black and Latino Americans make up about 30% of the US population but about 60% of those incarcerated Racial Disparities in Incarceration One in six black men had been incarcerated as of
2001. If current trends continue, one in three black males born today can expect to spend time in prison during his lifetime Nationwide, African-Americans represent 26% of juvenile arrests, 44% of youth who are detained, 46% of the youth who are judicially waived to
criminal court, and 58% of the youth admitted to state prisons (Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice) White Privilege It isnt that all white people are to blame for
discrimination; most are not. But white people nevertheless benefit from racism. And Im not just talking about incarceration! White privilege applies to jobs, housing, racial profiling while driving or at the store, etc. It is hard to see it, but it is happening all the time.
[This is just as true in the case of male privilege, heterosexual privilege, or any other form of privilege.] Active Racism vs. Passive Racism Active racism blatant, intentional acts of racial prejudice
E.g. not serving black people at your restaurant Passive racism more subtle forms of racism E.g. laughing at racist jokes, not challenging exclusionary hiring practices, accepting as appropriate
the omission of the history of people of color in the curriculum Active Anti-Racism Everyone needs to take an active anti-racist stance. But white people can play an
especially powerful role since they have more access to the societal institutions in need of being changed. Not All People Of Color Are Equally Targeted By Racism
Other factors intersect and matter! Like what? Class Sex Gender Sexual orientation Country of origin / immigration status
Etc. Social Class Group of people who share similar economic/social/political position in society Measures: income, wealth, occupational prestige,
educational attainment, culture, taste SES: socioeconomic status Wealth = All assets owned by an individual including cash, savings, investments in property, stocks, bonds, etc. Income = All wages and salaries earned from paid occupation. Also interest on savings.
Back to socialization! Learning Class Social Class affects values E.g. Respecting conformity, not questioning
authority Our class background shapes our: Opportunities Aspirations Expectations
Social Class helps determine the options we consider on the menu of life Back to stratification!!!
Inequality and Life Chances Working class and poor people are: Less likely to go to college More likely to get arrested, convicted, go to prison, and receive the death penalty than upper class people
More likely to die prematurely Our economy is worth, roughly, $188 trillion. Which is split between, roughly,
311 million people. Our countrys wealth split evenly would give everyone, roughly, $600,000. From 2009-2011,
100% of all new income went to the top 1% The bottom 99% actually saw a loss in their income. Forbes 400 Richest Americans
Have a combined net worth of over $1.54 trillion Bill Gates = $66 billion All 400 are billionaires ($1.1$66 bil.) More than half inherited their wealth
Over $200 billion is inherited each year, half of which comes from just 7 percent of estates. Should inheriting wealth
be allowed? Now back to gender Gender Inequality and Stratification
How many of you consider yourselves to be feminists? Gender Stratification Social system in which socio-economic
resources and political power are distributed on the basis of ones sex and gender Wage Gap On average women earn .81 cents for every $1 a man earns
This applies to men and women doing equal work! Why does the gender gap in pay persist? Occupational segregation Discrimination Institutional Sexism
Housework The Second Shift Women still do majority of household work, including caring for children Women working full time outside the home spend on average 19 hours/week on housework; men
average 10 hours/week This work is essential for society! Trigger Warning
Rape as Social Control Unlike men, women must worry about walking alone at night Rape is used in war to terrorize and punish Why no War Against Rape ? 1 in 4 women are sexually assaulted in their lifetime
(IN THE US!!!) 1 in 6 women will be the victim of attempted or completed rape 1 in 4 women in college are victims of rape Only 5% actually report the crime!!!
82% of sexual assaults are by people who know the victim Mr. Robinsons #1 Rape Prevention Tip: DONT
RAPE! Reflect Where do you fit in on the spectrum of social class and privilege? What group or groups are you a part of?
What roles or identities do you take on? How are your own social class/race/gender attitudes and opportunities shaping your life?
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