URBAN GEOGRAPHY Chapter 9 WHEN AND WHY DID PEOPLE START LIVING IN CITIES? Cities
City an agglomeration of people and buildings clustered together to serve as a center of politics, culture, and economics. An urban settlement that has incorporated into an independent selfgoverning unit Urban: The buildup of the central city and the suburban realm the city and the surrounding environs connected to the city.
Gateway cities today Cities that, because of their geographic location, act as ports of entry and distribution centers for large geographic areas. Agricultural Villages Before urbanization, people often
clustered in agricultural villages a relatively small, egalitarian village, where most of the population was involved in agriculture. About 10,000 years ago, people began living in agricultural villages. The First Urban Revolution Two components enable the formation of cities: 1. an agricultural surplus 2. social stratification (a leadership class, or urban elite)
The innovation of the city is called the First Urban Revolution, and it occurred independently in five separate hearths, a case of independent invention. Five Hearths of Urbanization In each of these hearths, an agricultural surplus and social stratification
created the conditions necessary for cities to form and be maintained. Five Hearths of Urbanization Mesopotamia, 3500 BCE
Nile River Valley, 3200 BCE Indus River Valley, 2200 BCE Huang He (Yellow) and Wei (Yangtzi) River Valleys, 1500 BCE Mesoamerica, 1100 BCE The Sixth Hearth (Who knew?) Peru, 900BCE
Chavin settlement in the Andean highlands Diffusion of Urbanization The Greek Cities by 500 BCE, Greeks were highly urbanized. Network of more than 500 cities and towns
On the mainland and on islands Each city had an acropolis and an agora Athens, Greece the agora the Acropolis Diffusion of Urbanization The Roman Cities a system of cities and small towns, linked together with hundreds of
miles of roads and sea routes. Sites of Roman cities were typically for trade A Roman citys Forum combined the acropolis and agora into one space. Roman cities had extreme wealth and extreme poverty (between 1/3 and 2/3s of empires population was enslaved)
Roman Empire The Roman Forum Aqueducts in Nimes, France During the mercantile era, the cities that thrived were embellished by wealthy merchant families, who built ornate mansions, patronized the arts, participated in city governments, and supported the reconstruction of city centers.
Genoa, Italy Historically, urbanization reached its highest point during the Greece-Roman era. The Second Urban Revolution
Late 1800s A large scale movement of people to cities to work in manufacturing. Made possible by: 1. second agricultural revolution that improved food production and created a larger surplus 2. industrialization, which encouraged growth of cities near industrial resources Industrialized regions of Europe, 1914 During the second half of
the 20th century Nature of manufacturing changed and locations changed, too. Many factories have been abandoned, creating rust belts out of once-thriving industrial districts. Duisburg, Germany
Because of this change in industry, the Sun Belt region in the United States has seen the most population growth since 1945. WHERE ARE CITIES LOCATED AND WHY?
Site and situation explain cities are planned and why they thrive or fail. Different size cities have different trade areasan adjacent region within which its influence is dominant Three components---population, trade area, and distance Site and Situation
Site * absolute location of a city * a citys static location, often chosen for trade, defense, or religion. * The physical qualities of the original location of a city
Situation * relative location of a city * a citys place in the region and the world around it. Rank-Size Rule:
in a model urban hierarchy, the population of the city or town will be inversely proportional to its rank in the hierarchy. For example: largest city = 12 million 2nd largest = 6 million (1/2) 3rd largest = 4 million (1/3) 4th largest = 3 million (1/4) * This rule does not work when you consider all the other cities in any given country in todays world. Primate City
The leading city of a country. The city is disproportionately larger than the rest of the cities in the country. It is usually a city that serves as the focus of a country and its culture. For example: London, UK Mexico City, Mexico Paris, France Copenhagen, Denmark - the rank-size rule does not work for a country with a primate city
Central Place Theory Walter Christaller developed a model to predict how and where central places in the urban hierarchy would be functionally and spatially distributed. * main purpose of a settlement or market town is to furnish goods and services to the surrounding markets Assumed: surface is flat with no physical barriers soil fertility is the same everywhere population and purchasing power are evenly distributed region has uniform transportation network from any given place, a good or service could be sold in all
directions out to a certain distance Hexagonal Hinterlands C = city T = town V = village H = hamlet * Large cities are economic
hubs with radiating connectors According to Christaller, the range or maximum for distance a consumer will travel to buy a good is commerce proportional to the cost of obtaining the good. Hinterland The hinterland is described as the outlying area serviced by an urban
center HOW ARE CITIES ORGANIZED, AND HOW DO THEY FUNCTION? Urban Morpholog y The layout of a city, its physical form and structure.
Berlin, Germany With wall (above) And without wall (right) Functional Zonation The division of the city into certain regions (zones) for certain purposes (functions).
Cairo, Egypt Central city (above) Housing projects (right) Zones of the City Central business district (CBD)
Central City (the CBD + older housing zones) Suburb (outlying, functionally uniform zone outside of the central city) Modeling the North American City
Concentric zone model (Ernest Burgess) Sector model (Homer Hoyt) Multiple Nuclei Model (Chauncy Harris and Edward Ullman)
Three Classical Models of Urban Structure Concentric Zone ModelBurgess
Series of rings Outermost ring is the commuter zone Closest ring is the zone of transition where the housing stock is most deteriorated and a sizeable percentage of residents are immigrants Provided a way for urban residents to gradually move up economically and socially by allowing them to migrate progressively away from the CBD. This model can be used in countries where there is more than one CBD.
Perhaps there are different ethnic and/or religious populations in the country that live separately from one another. Sector Model- Hoyt Lower income neighborhoods are usually located adjacent to the industrial and
transportation corridor High-class residential areas dont change much over time In the future, geographers using the Hoyt Model would suggest that lowincome populations would most likely live close to the high-speed rail lines. Multiple Nuclei Model- Harris and Ullman They developed their model during a time
when many people began using cars to navigate cities more easily. 1940s A city could be lacking a CBD if their different industries were located throughout the city.
Broken up by the different nodes of activities Examples: Universities, Hospitals, Airport and transportation, and the CBD Urban Realms Model Each realm is a separate economic, social, and political entity that is
linked together to form a larger metro framework. Most American cities are similar to this model Gravity Model
Used to calculate the bonds between different urban centers. It assumes that two cities located close together would attract more people that two cities located far apart. Modeling the Cities of the Global Periphery and Semiperiphery Latin American City (Griffin-Ford model)
African City (de Blij model) Southeast Asian City (McGee model) Latin America n City (GriffinFord
model) Latin American Model The elite residential section is located on either side of the main blvd that leads to the CBD
Squatter settlements dominate on the periphery Contains a distinct residential spine proceeding outward from the center city along the main blvd Disamenity sector very poorest parts of the city eg. the favelas of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil African City de Blij
Most African cities have three separate business districts due to colonialism. Southeast Asian City (McGee
model) Edge Cities- A large node of office and commercial land use outside the central city with more jobs than residents Suburban downtowns, often located near key freeway intersections, often with: - office complexes
- shopping centers - hotels - restaurants - entertainment facilities - sports complexes - Since the 1980s, there has been a trend to build suburbs and edge cities within the US that are farther and farther away from the Central City. - Residents of edge cities and suburban areas have long depended on cars and public
transportation to access jobs in large cities. HOW DO PEOPLE MAKE CITIES? Angola- clear difference between rich and poor Japan- very large middle class in a densely populated Tokyo
Powerful social and cultural forces shape the character of a city and create the cultural landscape of the city. GLOBAL PERIPHERY AND SEMIPERIPHERY sharp contrast between rich
and poor - Often lack zoning laws or enforcement of zoning laws - Peripheral Models The periphery highlights the problems of sprawl and segregation in and around
cities Making Cities in the Global Core Redlining banks and other financial institutions refusing to lend money in certain neighborhoods.
During the 1950s Urban American neighborhoods became segregated Today- as an urban neighborhoods SES decreases, its residents are more likely to be denied the opportunity to enter into mortgages and receive home loans White Flight In the 1970s and 1980s, there was a lot of movement of White middle-and high-income families out of the urban
areas to the outlying areas, which was considered a racial movement. This was the result of African Americans purchasing homes in white neighborhoods before and during the Civil Rights Movement. Making Cities in the Global Core Gentrification individuals buy up and rehabilitate houses, raising the housing value in the neighborhood and changing the neighborhood.
Revitalizing force against urban decay, but a segregating force between rich and poor Green Building raises property values throughout a neighborhood Commercialization city governments transform a
central city to attract residents and tourists. The newly commercialized downtowns often are a stark contrast to the rest of the central city. Urban Sprawl Unrestricted growth of housing, commercial developments , and roads over large
expanses of land, with little concern for urban planning. Henderson, Urban Sprawl How can we fight urban sprawl?
Efficient transportation policies Urban growth boundaries Economic incentives for locating in downtown areas New Urbanism
Development, urban revitalization, and suburban reforms that create walkable neighborhoods with a diversity of housing and jobs. some are concerned over privatization of public spaces
some are concerned that they do nothing to bread down the social conditions that create social ills of the cities some believe they work against urban sprawl The City Beautiful Movement Starting in the late 19th century and
ever-continuing Trying to respond to: Over-crowded inner-city tenements Excessive pollution during the industrial era Citizens need for urban green spaces Communities needs to have clean air
GATED AND PLANNED COMMUNITIES * Found in the suburbs * residents are thought to have high incomes and elite lifestyles * Urban and/or suburban communities reduce crime, increase property values, and create a space of safety Ethnic Neighborhoods
European City eg. Muslim neighborhoods in Paris Cities of the Periphery and Semiperiphery
eg. Mumbai, India Mumbai, India WHAT ROLE DO CITIES PLAY IN GLOBALIZATION? WORLD CITIES Cities that function at the global scale, beyond the reach of the state borders, functioning as the service centers of the
world economy. World/Global cities Ex: New York, London, Tokyo Home to international business centers There can be a lot of displacement of minority populations with low incomes because of the process of gentrification.
Global linkages New York, London, and Tokyo are the three most important cities in the world today North America and Europe are the two
continents that have the most linkages between their world cities World city rank: 1. NYC 2. London 3. Tokyo 4. Paris 5. Hong Kong 6. Chicago 7. Los Angeles 8. Singapore 9. Sydney 10. Seoul LDCs- Least Developed Countries
Sub-Saharan Africa is the most rapidly urbanizing area of the world. Cities in the LDCs now make up a larger percentage of the top ten most populated cities of the world. The most urbanized region in the developing world is South America
MDCs- More Developed Countries Challenges: Overcrowding Infrastructure maintenance
Crime Pollution MEGA cities A metropolitan area with a total population of over 10 million people
A growing number of mega cities are found in the LDCs Problems: waste disposal and air pollution Gateway cities During the 1400s-1700s, European powers established areas which served as an entrance to or exit from a conquered area.
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