CAMPBELL BIOLOGY TENTH EDITION Reece Urry Cain Wasserman

CAMPBELL BIOLOGY TENTH EDITION Reece  Urry  Cain  Wasserman

CAMPBELL BIOLOGY TENTH EDITION Reece Urry Cain Wasserman Minorsky Jackson 30 Plant Diversity II: The Evolution of Seed Plants

Clicker Questions by Roberta Batorsky 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. The reason that two sperm nuclei travel down the pollen tube is that a) they both stimulate growth of the pollen tube. b) one fertilizes the egg, and the other combines with the two polar nuclei. c) one fertilizes the egg, and the other fertilizes the synergid.

d) one is for fertilizing the egg, and one directs the pollen tube toward the micropyle. e) if one fails in fertilization, there is a backup nucleus. 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. The reason that two sperm nuclei travel down the pollen tube is that a) they both stimulate growth of the pollen tube. b) one fertilizes the egg, and the other combines with the two polar nuclei. c) one fertilizes the egg, and the other fertilizes the

synergid. d) one is for fertilizing the egg, and one directs the pollen tube toward the micropyle. e) if one fails in fertilization, there is a backup nucleus. 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Adaptations that have contributed to the success of plants in terrestrial environments include seeds, vascular tissue, cuticle, and flowers. There are other significant adaptations as well. Which of the following correctly lists the adaptations in the order in which they appeared in the fossil record?

a) seeds, vascular tissue, flowers, cuticle b) cuticle, seeds, flowers, vascular tissue c) cuticle, vascular tissue, seeds, flowers d) vascular tissue, cuticle, seeds, flowers 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Adaptations that have contributed to the success of plants in terrestrial environments include seeds, vascular tissue, cuticle, and flowers. There are other significant adaptations as well. Which of the following correctly lists the adaptations in the order in which they appeared in the fossil record?

a) seeds, vascular tissue, flowers, cuticle b) cuticle, seeds, flowers, vascular tissue c) cuticle, vascular tissue, seeds, flowers d) vascular tissue, cuticle, seeds, flowers 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. These four adaptations (cuticle, vascular tissue, seeds, and flowers) are key characters that define four major modern plant groups. Complete the following table using the key provided. a) ferns (and relatives) c) flowering plants

2014 Pearson Education, Inc. b) bryophytes (mosses) d) gymnosperms These four adaptations (cuticle, vascular tissue, seeds, and flowers) are key characters that define four major modern plant groups. Complete the following table using the key provided. a) ferns (and relatives) b) bryophytes (mosses)

c) flowering plants d) gymnosperms 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. These four adaptations (cuticle, vascular tissue, seeds, and flowers) are key characters that define four major modern plant groups. Complete the following table using the key provided. a) ferns (and relatives)

b) bryophytes (mosses) c) flowering plants d) gymnosperms 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. These four adaptations (cuticle, vascular tissue, seeds, and flowers) are key characters that define four major modern plant groups. Complete the following table using the key provided. a) ferns (and relatives)

b) bryophytes (mosses) c) flowering plants d) gymnosperms 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. The reason that two sperm nuclei travel down the pollen tube is that a) they both stimulate growth of the pollen tube.

b) one fertilizes the egg, and the other combines with the two polar nuclei. c) one fertilizes the egg, and the other fertilizes the synergid. d) one is for fertilizing the egg, and one directs the pollen tube toward the micropyle. e) if one fails in fertilization, there is a backup nucleus. 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. The reason that two sperm nuclei travel down the pollen tube is that

a) they both stimulate growth of the pollen tube. b) one fertilizes the egg, and the other combines with the two polar nuclei. c) one fertilizes the egg, and the other fertilizes the synergid. d) one is for fertilizing the egg, and one directs the pollen tube toward the micropyle. e) if one fails in fertilization, there is a backup nucleus. 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. In dicotyledon seed germination, usually the first organ to emerge from the seed is the

a) shoot tip, as the most important function to get under way is breaking through the soil. b) hypocotyl, as the most important function to get under way is breaking through the soil. c) cotyledon(s), as the most important function to get under way is photosynthesis. d) radicle, as the most important function to get under way is the absorption of water and nutrients. e) root, as the most important function to get under way is the anchoring of the plant to the soil. 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

In dicotyledon seed germination, usually the first organ to emerge from the seed is the a) shoot tip, as the most important function to get under way is breaking through the soil. b) hypocotyl, as the most important function to get under way is breaking through the soil. c) cotyledon(s), as the most important function to get under way is photosynthesis. d) radicle, as the most important function to get under way is the absorption of water and nutrients. e) root, as the most important function to get under way is the anchoring of the plant to the soil.

2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All of the following statements regarding double fertilization in the angiosperms is true except which one? a) The angiosperm embryo is diploid. b) The pollen tube reaching the micropyle results in the death of one of the synergids. c) The fertilized angiosperm ovule consists of diploid and triploid cells. d) The megasporangium gives rise to four haploid eggs through meiosis. e) One of the pollen nuclei contributes to the genome of

the endosperm. 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All of the following statements regarding double fertilization in the angiosperms is true except which one? a) The angiosperm embryo is diploid. b) The pollen tube reaching the micropyle results in the death of one of the synergids. c) The fertilized angiosperm ovule consists of diploid and triploid cells. d) The megasporangium gives rise to four haploid eggs through meiosis.

e) One of the pollen nuclei contributes to the genome of the endosperm. 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. The flowers of wind-pollinated plants a) usually have flat blades to direct the wind. b) produce sticky pollen. c) are usually green and inconspicuous. d) are usually white and small. e) usually occur on separate male and female plants. 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

The flowers of wind-pollinated plants a) usually have flat blades to direct the wind. b) produce sticky pollen. c) are usually green and inconspicuous. d) are usually white and small. e) usually occur on separate male and female plants. 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. An accessory fruit is one that

a) grows from a lateral meristem. b) develops from tissue other than the ovary. c) develops from the pericarp. d) consists of multiple receptacles. e) is not necessary for reproduction. 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. An accessory fruit is one that a) grows from a lateral meristem. b) develops from tissue other than the ovary. c) develops from the pericarp.

d) consists of multiple receptacles. e) is not necessary for reproduction. 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Which of the following lists an aggregate fruit, a multiple fruit, and an accessory fruit, in that order? a) guava, blackberry, cherry b) watermelon, orange, fig c) apple, pear, cherry d) pineapple, tangerine, cranberry e) strawberry, fig, pear

2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Which of the following lists an aggregate fruit, a multiple fruit, and an accessory fruit, in that order? a) guava, blackberry, cherry b) watermelon, orange, fig c) apple, pear, cherry d) pineapple, tangerine, cranberry e) strawberry, fig, pear 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Scientific Skills Exercises

One unusual opportunity to test how long seeds can remain viable occurred when seeds from date palm trees (Phoenix dactylifera) were discovered under the rubble of a 2,000-yearold fortress near the Dead Sea. Scientists measured the fraction of carbon-14 that remained in three of the ancient date palm seeds: two that were not planted and one that was planted and germinated. (For the germinated seed, the scientists used a seed-coat fragment found clinging to a root of the seedling.) The table shows their results. Data from S. Sallon, et al., Germination, genetics, and growth of an ancient date seed. Science 320:1464 (2008). 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

An ancient date palm seed germinated and grew into a healthy plant. What was the source of nutrients for the young sporophyte embryo during germination of the date palm seed? a) sunlight b) food stored within the seed c) water taken up by the germinating seed d) the surrounding soil 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. An ancient date palm seed germinated and grew into a healthy plant. What was the source of nutrients for the

young sporophyte embryo during germination of the date palm seed? a) sunlight b) food stored within the seed c) water taken up by the germinating seed d) the surrounding soil 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Why is seed dormancy adaptive for many plant species? a) Seed dormancy increases the longevity of an

individual sporophyte plant. b) Seed dormancy allows seeds to germinate when conditions are favorable for seedling growth. c) Seed dormancy ensures that a seedling does not compete with its parents. d) Seed dormancy ensures that a seedling does not germinate when a source of food is not available for the young seedling. 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Why is seed dormancy adaptive for many plant species?

a) Seed dormancy increases the longevity of an individual sporophyte plant. b) Seed dormancy allows seeds to germinate when conditions are favorable for seedling growth. c) Seed dormancy ensures that a seedling does not compete with its parents. d) Seed dormancy ensures that a seedling does not germinate when a source of food is not available for the young seedling. 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. A logarithm is the power to which a base is raised to produce a given number x. For example, if the base is

10 and x = 100, the logarithm of 100 equals 2 (because 102 = 100). A natural logarithm (ln) is the logarithm of a number x to the base e, where e is about 2.718. Natural logarithms are useful in calculating rates of some natural processes, such as radioactive decay. The equation F = ekt describes the fraction F of an original isotope remaining after a period of t years; the exponent is negative because it refers to a decrease over time. The constant k provides a measure of how rapidly the original isotope decays. For the decay of carbon-14 to nitrogen-14, k = 0.00012097. 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

You can rearrange this equation to solve for t by following these steps: 1. Take the natural logarithm of both sides of the equation ln(F) = ln(ekt ). Rewrite the right side of this equation by applying the following rule: ln(ex) = x ln(e). 2. Since ln(e) = 1, simplify the equation. 3. Now solve for t in the form t = ____. 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Which equation correctly solves for t?

a) t = ln(F) k ln( ln(e) b) t = ln(F) k c) t = ln(F)ln(e k) d) t = log10(F) k 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Which equation correctly solves for t? a) t = ln(F) k ln( ln(e) b) t = ln(F) k c) t = ln(F)ln(e k) d) t = log10(F) k

2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

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