Psychology and Crime Psychoanalytic Theory/Psychoanalysis Cognitive Psychology Principles
Psychology and Crime Psychoanalytic Theory/Psychoanalysis Cognitive Psychology Principles of Learning
Personality and Crime IQ/Intelligence and Crime Psychoanalytic Theory Sigmund Freud 18561939 Psychic Determinism A CIGAR IS NEVER JUST A CIGAR Freudian Elements of Personality
Conscious vs. Unconscious Mind Id: If it feels good, do it! Superego: conscience Stealing is wrong. Ego: psychological thermostat that regulates the wishes of the id with the social restrictions of the superego
Defense Mechanisms Used to reduce anxiety REPRESSION RATIONALIZATION DENIAL PROJECTION Freudian Explanations of Delinquency
Overactive Id Delinquent Superego Delinquent Ego Crimes with special meaning Translating psychoanalysis into rehabilitation? Works for articulate adult neurotics who can talk out their problems Policy Implications of Freudian Theory
Drawbacks Almost impossible to test empirically (Cannot be directly observed and measured) Still maintains a place in psychology of criminal behavior Many concepts from Freud used in modern theory LOW SELF CONTROL PRO-CRIMINAL ATTITUDES
Principles of Learning Three types of learning Classical conditioning Operant conditioning
Observational (vicarious) learning Classical Conditioning Principles of Learning Positive reinforcement: increases the target behavior by rewarding the individual Negative reinforcement: increases the target behavior by removing an unpleasant stimulus
Punishment: reduces the odds of the target behavior being repeated Principles of Learning Delinquency tied to parents failure to effectively condition their children away from bad behavior Inconsistent and harsh punishment (Glueck and Glueck). Effective parenting (monitoring, punishing,
and reinforcing behavior)nondeliquent children (Patterson). Parental behaviors may have few effects on the childs long-term development (Harris). How to Train Your Parent Principles of Learning GERALD PATTERSON AND FRIENDS
Observational Learning Albert Bandura (Bobo doll experiments): most human learning is not based on trial and error (operant conditioning). Effects on criminal behaviors are difficult to determine. Media and Crime Does media (TV and movies) influence aggression, violence, and criminal
behavior? Conducive to role modeling Perpetrators not punished Targets of violence show little pain Few long-term negative consequences Some evidence (but still debate)reducing exposure may reduce aggression Policy Implications of Behaviorism
Criminals can learn pro-social behaviors to replace criminal actions. Classical Conditioning Aversion therapy Operant Conditioning Token economy Cognitive Psychology Humans ability to engage in complex thoughts influences behavior. Cognitions (like behaviors) can be learned.
Focus on: Cognitive structure (how people think) Cognitive content (what people think) Cognitive Structure Kohlberg's theory of moral reasoning: humans advance through predictable stages of moral reasoning Self-control Ability to empathize
Ability to anticipate consequences Ability to control anger Kohlbergs Stages of Moral Development (1 of 2) Stage 1 Right is blindly obeying those with power and authority. Emphasis is on avoiding punishment. Interests of others are not considered.
Stage 2 Right is furthering ones own interests. Interests of others are important only as a way to satisfy self-interests. Stage 3 Moral reasoning is motivated by loyalties to others and a desire to live up to others standards.
Kohlbergs Stages of Moral Development (2 of 2) Stage 4 Right is following the rules of society and maintaining important social institutions (e.g., family, community). Stage 5 Moral decisions are made by weighing individual rights against legal principles and the common good.
Stage 6 Moral decisions are based on universal principles (e.g., human dignity, desire for justice). Principles are considered across different contexts and are independent of the law. Cognitive Content Rationalizations or denials that support criminal behavior For example, a criminal thinks, Im not really
hurting anyone. Extremely common for sex offenders Criminals are more likely to express such thoughts Sociologists are often skeptical (time-ordering) Psychologists: NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT
Policy Implications of Cognitive Psychology Cognitive theory translates easily into practice. Cognitive skills programs teach offenders cognitive skills like moral reasoning, anger management, or self-control. Cognitive restructuring attempts to change the content of an individuals thoughts.
Combination cognitive-behavioral have track record of success Theory in Action Multisystematic therapy (MST)
Creator Scott Henggeler and associates Reduces criminal behavior Comprehensive approach Targets many areas for change Uses many different techniques (not just cognitive-behavioral programs) Personality and Crime Crime and delinquency related to the
presence of some personality trait Personality trait: a characteristic of an individual that is stable over time and across different social circumstances Personality: the sum of personality traits that define a person Personality Traits and Crime (1 of 3) A number of related traits combine to form super factors
Several different models Five-factor model Tellegens personality model Recent studies use the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ) Personality Traits and Crime (2 of 3) Personality dimensions in the MPQ Constraint
Traditionalism Harm avoidance Control Negative emotionality Aggression Alienation Stress reaction Personality Traits and Crime (3 of 3)
Personality dimensions in the MPQ Positive emotionality Achievement Social potency Well-being
Social closeness Criminal Personality: The Psychopath A distinct criminal personality One of the oldest concepts in criminology MORAL INSANITY Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD) from DSM-IV
1. Disregard for the rights of others. At least three of the following: behaves in a way that is grounds for arrest, deceitful and manipulative, impulsive, aggressive, irresponsible, lack of remorse 2. Age 18 or older 3. A history of child conduct disorder 4. Antisocial behavior not a product of schizophrenic episode
Psychopath is narrower concept Hervey Cleckleys (1957) The Mask of Sanity Key features: Manipulative, Superficial charm, Above-average intelligence, Absence of psychotic symptoms, Absence of anxiety, Lack of remorse, Failure to learn from experience, Egocentric, Lack of emotional depth Other Characteristics: Trivial Sex life, Unreliable,
Failure to follow a life plan, Untruthful, Suicide attempts rarely genuine, Impulsive, Antisocial behavior HARE PCL The Psychopathy Checklist Interview Measures different aspects of psychopathy (each scored on a 0-2 scale) Has produced very interesting studies
(difference between psychopath and nonpsychopath inmates) Policy Implications of Personality Theory Personality traits consistently predict delinquency and crime. Criticisms: Personality traits are often portrayed as impossible to change (See, Psychopathy) What causes personality traits?
Intelligence and Crime Feeblemindedness was once thought to be a cause of crime. What exactly is IQ and how does it relate to criminal behavior? A Brief History of Intelligence Testing Binet started out like his peers: Measuring
peoples skull size Not much differenceworried about bias in the tests Developed a hodgepodge of tests measure identify learning disabled children Not meant to be a measuring device for intelligence in normal students Translated to English, used to identify morons and low grade defectives as part of eugenics
IQ and Crime There is an IQ gap of 810 points between criminals and noncriminals, even when statistically controlled for race and social class. IQ is not a very strong indicator of criminal behavior. But, it does consistently predict
IQ and Crime Travis Hirschi and Michael Hindelang The Bell Curve Direct effect Most criminologists find evidence of indirect effects IQ School, Peers, etc. Crime Conclusion
Psychological theories the individual Modern Theory LEARNING COGNITION and IQ PERSONALITY Many psychological theories translate well into treatment programs.
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