TRANSITION FROM SCHOOL TO ADULTHOOD FOR YOUTH WITH
TRANSITION FROM SCHOOL TO ADULTHOOD FOR YOUTH WITH AUTISM AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES October 21, 2010 Texas Tech University Paul Wehman, Ph.D. Virginia Commonwealth University
Teresa Age 22 Completed high school Job experience: brief employment in food service Began working at VCU in August 2009 to assist with clerical needs (making books, copies, presentation packets, etc.)
Challenges- talking frequency & subject matter, checking work for completion, remembering steps in a process, & staying professional Workplace Supports Job coach Notebook of process instructions To-do lists & alarm reminders Copy request forms
Teresas presence has had a positive impact on coworkers! --Supervisor The Power of Work Importance of Work High school students (with and without disabilities) who participated in two or
more work-related experiences in high school were more likely to obtain competitive employment one year after graduation, than their peers who did nor have work-related experiences during high school. Benz, Yovanoff, & Doren, 1997 Pervasive Unemployment
& Underemployment Harris Poll (2004) 65% Unemployed Employment levels vary according to disability & definition Chairman Miller Asks GAO to Examine Effectiveness of Federal Programs
Aimed at Helping Students with Disabilities Transition from High School to College & Workforce Identify: Key federal programs that help support transition Examine: Challenges students face in accessing existing federal programs; Degree federal agencies coordinate efforts & identify
barriers; & Use data to assess effectiveness of coordination efforts 9/10/2010 Vocational Choices for Young People with Disabilities Competitive Employment Supported
Employment Rehabilitation Facility or Workshop Day Program or Activity Center Self-Employment
Supplemental Staffing Customized Employment Telework When Will
Competitive Employment Be the First Choice? Wehman, Revell, & Brooke, 2003 Long Term Support: Who Will Pay? Long Term Funding: The Bane of Transition
Transition: What Does Research Tell Us? Efficacy of Transition Planning 31 studies reviewed involving 859 youth Not enough studies have
sufficient methodological design Cobb & Alwell, 2009 Findings Too little, too late Lack of active participation by students/families Perception of poor post 21
outcomes by families and teachers Cobb & Alwell, 2009 Findings from Qualitative Metasynthesis of Transition Planning Transition more of a promise than a reality Uneven transition expertise, low levels of parent/student involvement Influence of families & extended families on career
choices and job acquisition Restrictive views on post-school outcomes Lack of cognitive clarity & systematic instruction Lack of respect & understanding by some teachers Source: NSTTAC Review of 399 IEPs for 16 to 22 yrsRevealed Almost two thirds of the plans did not
address or provided inadequate detail for mandated transition goal areas Most plans lacked career planning & indicated a disconnect between an individuals career interests & the type of work experiences they participated in Powers et al., 2005 Evidenced Based
Practices in Transition Test et al 2009 Overall Findings Taxonomy for Transition Programming created 32 secondary transition evidenced based practices were identified Two had strong level of evidence - life skills; purchasing skills (e.g. use of phone, travel, training,
& cooking) 28 had moderate level of evidence primarily instructional skills Test et al., 2009 Efficacy of Life Skills 50 studies reviewed involving 482 youth Alwell & Cobb, 2009
Findings Strong support for life skills training & positive transition related outcomes Alwell & Cobb, 2009
Self Determination Key Reasons: Improved School & Adult Outcomes Young people with disabilities , who often experience low rates of school completion and adult success, also tend to experience lower levels of self-determination than their peers. (Wehmeyer & Kelchner, 1996; Wehmeyer & Metlzer, 1995)
Young people with disabilities who have higher levels of self-determination are more likely to obtain post school employment and experience success in their adult lives. (Gerber, Ginsberg, & Reiff, 1992; Wehmeyer & Palmer, 2003; Wehmeyer & Schwartz, 1997;1998) Self-Determination & Employment
Employment outcomes were better for workers who received self-determination at job placement vs. those who only received job placement. Agran, M. & Hughes, C., 2008 Ways We can Foster the Development of Support students
Self-Determination participating in Skills their IEP meetings & including selfdetermination skills as IEP goals Student Directed IEP Process Range of methods, strategies, & approaches that are designed to
provide support to students with disabilities in participating in IEP process to maximum extent possible (Thoma, C. & Wehman, P. 2010) Research on Using Process Enhance student motivation (Niemiec & Ryan 2009)
Help students understand IEP process (Allen et al 2001) Improve student academic performance (Test et al 2004) Research (cont) Increase the teams understanding of student preferences, strengths, challenges (Martin et al 2006)
Increase student self determination in general (Test et al 2004; Held and Thomas (2004) Increase student and parent participation and opportunities to communicate at IEP meeting (Martin et al 2006) Fostering Self-Determination
Another way to foster the development of selfdetermination skills is through the teaching & practice of selfdirected learning Fostering Self-Determination Infuse practices into your school &
community that support the development of self-determination skills for all members of the community. What is the
GOLD STANDARD for Education for Youth with Autism & Developmental Disabilities? COMMUNITY-BASED TRAINING & INTERVENTION
WHAT skills should be taught in the community? WHAT should be on the IEP? Transition IEPs 1. Employment Goal (may include integrated employment and supported employment)
2. Vocational/Technical Training Goal (may include apprenticeship, work-force training) 3.
Higher Education Goal Transition IEPs (cont) 4. Continuing and Adult Education, Career/Technical Education Goal (may include public or private technical school)
Social Competence Goal 9. Health/Safety Goal (Transition IEPs Wehman & Wittig, 2009, PRO-ED) HOW should these skills be
taught? Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) in portfolio of skills context a (Wehman, Schall & Smith, 2009)
GOING TO WORK Promising Models & Service Delivery Practices for Young People with Autism & Other Developmental Disabilities Project Search Model Cincinnati Childrens Medical Hospital
What is this program ? Rutkowski, S. , Datson, M. Van Kuiken, D., & Riehle, E. (2006). Project SEARCH: A demand-side model of high school transition. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 25, 85-96. Key Concepts Collaboration with business, education, rehabilitation (VR) and DD Braided funding
Immersion & impact Training in real work settings Low risk, low cost for business Hiring students who are good fit Goal of employment School Day: Business Based
V.C.U. Project Search Replication Bon Secours Supported by NIDRR, US Dept of Education P.J. Coronary Unit P.J.: Coronary Care Unit Duties Stock drawers & cabinets in patient
rooms Take out laundry baskets Prepare rooms for next patient Remove needle boxes when they are full Make flow charts for each patient Stock lab trays Check refrigerator temperatures
Sam: Materials Management Sam: Materials Management Duties Use computer board & wand Count the white labeled items Pull materials from stockroom Load cart Deliver stock to assigned departments
J.K.: Radiology JK: Radiology Duties Clean & sterilize X-ray cassettes Stock patient areas with linens Travel to Radiology, ER, and Outpatient Units to complete these duties
Alice: Pediatrics Alice: Pediatrics Duties Make new patient packets Stock supplies Clean toys Play with children Deliver blankets, books & toys Make name signs for patient doors &
printing pages to color Help children with crafts Kalyn Ambulatory Surgery Remove instruments from clean
baskets Sort items Identify instruments and place correct items on tray Chris - ARAMARK Rounding on Patient Care Floors: Clean single, triple, and pain infusion
pumps Clean IV poles Clean Hovermats (for bariatric patients) Clean Isolettes Clean Giraffes Technology: The 800 lb Gorilla in
the Room Ready, Set, Read: Intel Reader Transforms Printed Text to Spoken Word Intel Reader Mobile Handheld Device for People with Reading-Based Disabilities, such as Dyslexia or vision problems Converts printed text
to digital text & reads it aloud to user Source: Wall Street Journal 10/7/10) Using iPod Touch with Autistic Employees Jason Grudem 21 Team member since 2008
Stocks shelves Recently began using iPod Touch to communicate with customers & coworkers via a program that voice articulates the text he types
iPod Touch Assists with Staying on Track To-do checklists Photos of properly set-up displays, stocked shelves, & coolers Instructions
captioned on photos Photos & names of coworkers The iPod Touch has done wonders for Grudern's work, but more importantly, it reveals parts of his
personality and sense of humor that co-workers were never aware of before. (Walgreens Applause, May/June 2010, p. 2) Walgreens
19 Distribution Centers in USA In Anderson SC and Windsor CT Walgreens has hired 100s of individual with disabilities. Hire internal job coaches to provide supports both on the day and evening shifts
Walgreens Over 7,000 retail stores Pilot Program in Dallas Metro area to recruit & hire individuals with disabilities Partnering with DARS Other facts include: Recruiting on walgreensoutreach.com Offers internships with local school
Lowes Looking to replicate Walgreens model at distribution centers Visited Walgreens in Anderson, SC Lowes Regional Distribution Center in Jenkins township in Wilkes-Barre
developed partnership with The ARC of Luzerne County As of March,2010 29 people have been hired & supported by outside agency job coaches AMC Theatres Working with Autism Society of America Creating a Pilot Program in Kansas City to
hire individuals with Autism in their theatres Developing partnerships with local schools Best Buy Total of over 140,000 Employees in 1,200 stores
Exploring Walgreens model in their distribution centers (Looking for partners in the community) Has created a Disability Initiatives www.canyoubeyou.com Employment Intervention Strategies
Supported Employment Wehman, P. et al. (2007) Real work for real pay Meaningful Competitive Employment Integrated Work Setting Employees are hired,
supervised and paid by the business Employment benefits are commensurate with nondisabled coworker Meet Robert Employer: Walmart
Vocational Challenges No previous work Loud vocalizations experience Screams Echolalia Impulsive behavior Jerky body
movements Easily distracted Overly attentive to food; likes to eat Vocational Strengths
Supportive FamilyReads & writes letters & numbers Transportation Desire to work Neat Knows how to get what he wants
Communicates using phrases Great physical abilities Vocational Strengths Enjoys
cleaning & organizing Enjoys completing puzzles & putting models together
Likes to stay busy Follows directions Understands consequences like restrictions on property, or time out
Job Created at Walmart Electronics & Domestics Departments 20 hrs week $7.10 / hr
Electronics Department Tasks Restocking & organizing DVD & CD displays Removing displays from sales floor Zoning products on shelves
Cleaning area Domestics Department Tasks Zones linens Repackages items Prices items Assists coworkers with projects Work Supports for Robert
Job coach Behavior support plan Educating & training job site personnel
Big smile for pay raise! Dual Enrollment Cutting Edge Transition Issues Employment Before Exit Policy
(Rusch & Braddock, 2004) (Wehman et al, 2002; 2006b) No More Subminimum Wages! APSE Board Statement, July, 2009 SSI for 18-35 year oldsLet them keep it while they work!
Wehman, 2006a Functional Curriculum Vs Literacy Based Curriculum (See Bouck 2008) Long Term Funding Policy for Extended Employment & Independent Living
(see Certo et al., 2008) Greater Early On Transition Planning with Student, Family & Self-Determination Reference List Agran, M. and Hughes, C. (2008). Students' opinions regarding
their Individualized Education Program involvement. Career Development for Exceptional Individuals, 31(2), 69-76. Alwell, M. and Cobb, B. (2009). Functional life skills curricular interventions for youth with disabilities: A systematic review. Career Development for Exceptional Individuals, Aug 32, 82 - 93. Analysis of 2007-2008 state annual performance reports for indicator 13. National Secondary Transition Technical Assistance Center. Retrieved October 22, 2009, from
www.nsttac.org/indicator13/StatePerformanceReportSumm ary2009.pdf APSE statement on subminimum wage. (July, 2009). Available from www.apse.org Reference List Benz, R.B., Yovanoff, P., and Doren, B. (1997). School-to-work components that predict post-school success for students with and without disabilities. Exceptional Children, 63, 151-165.
Bond, G.R. (2004). Supported employment: evidence for an evidencebased practice. Psychiatr Rehabil J 27, 345359. Bond, G., McHugo, G., Becker, D, Rapp, C. and Whitley, R. (2008). Fidelity of supported employment: Lessons learned from the National Evidence-Based Practice project. Psychiatr Rehabil J, 31(4), 300-305. Bouck, E. C. (2008). Factors impacting the enactment of functional curriculum in self contained cross categorical programs. Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities, 43(3), 294-310. Braddock, D., Hemp, R., and Rizzolo, M.C. (2008). The state of the
states in developmental disabilities, seventh edition, 2008. Washington, DC: American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities. Reference List Carter, E.W., Cushing, L.S. and Kennedy(2009). Peer Support Strategies for Improving All Students Social Lives and Learning. Paul H. Brookes. Certo, N. J., Luecking, R., Murphy, S., Courey, S. and Belanger, D. (2008).
Seamless transition and long-term support for individuals with severe intellectual disabilities. Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 33(3), 85-95. Clark, H. B., and Unruh, D. K. (2009). Transition of youth and young adult with emotional or behavioral difficulties: An evidencesupported handbook. Baltimore: Brookes Publishing. Cobb, B. R and Alwell, M. (2009). Transition planning/coordinating interventions for youth with disabilities: A Systematic Review. Career Development for Exceptional Individuals, 32(2) 70-81.
Reference List Flannery, K.B., Slovic, R., Benz, M.R., and Levine, E. (2007). Priorities and changing practices: Vocational rehabilitation and community colleges improving workforce development programs for people with disabilities. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 27, 141-151. Hart, D., Grigal, M., Sax, C., Martinez, D., & Will, M. (2006). Postsecondary education options for students with intellectual disabilities. Research to Practice, 45, 1- 4. Hartwig, R. and Sitlington, P.L. (2008). Employer perspectives on high
school diploma options for adolescents with disabilities. Journal of Disability Policy Studies, 19(1), 5- 14. Hughes, C., Washington, B. H., and Brown, G. L. (2008). Supporting students in the transition from school to adult life. In Rusch, F. R. (Ed.). Beyond high school: Preparing Adolescents for Tomorrows Challenges (2nd Ed.). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, Pearson. Institute for Community Inclusion: Supported employment closures. Retrieved October 22, 2009, from http://www.statedata.info
Reference List National Longitudinal Transition Study 2. Retrieved October 22, 2009, from http://www.nlts2.org/data_tables/index.html Ottomanelli, L.,Bradshaw, L.D., and Cipher, D.J. (2009). Employment and Vocational Rehabilitation Services use among veterans with Spinal Cord Injury. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 31(1), 3943. Powers, K. M., Gil-Kashiwabara, E., Greenen, S. J., Powers, L. E., Balandran, J., and Palmer, C. (2005). Mandates and effective transition planning practices reflected in IEPs. Career Development
for Exceptional Individuals, 28(1), 47-59. Revell, G., Smith, F., and Inge, K. (2009). Report: An analysis of selfemployment outcomes within the Federal/State Vocational Rehabilitation System. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 31(1), 11-18. Reference List Rusch, F.R. & Braddock, D. (2004). Adult day programs versus supported employment (1988-2002): Spending and service practices of mental retardation and developmental disabilities state agencies. Research and
Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 29, 237-242. Test, D. W., Fowler, C.H., Richter, S.M., White, J., Mazzotti, V., Walker, A.R., Kohler, P. and Kortering (2009). Evidence-based practices in secondary transition. Career Development for Exceptional Individuals, 32(2),115128. The young and the jobless. (2009). The Wall Street Journal, October 3, page A12. Thoma, C. & Wehman, P. (2010). Student Directed IEPs. Baltimore, Md. Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co. What works transition research synthesis National Secondary Transition
Technical Assistance Center. Retrieved October 22, 2009, from http://www.nsttac.org/ebp/what_works.aspx Reference List Wehman, P. (1981). Competitive employment: New horizons for severely disabled individuals. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co. Wehman, P. (2002). A new era: Revitalizing Special Education for children and their families. Focus on Autism and Other
Developmental Disabilities, 17(4), 194-197. Wehman, P. (2006a). Integrated employment: If not now, when? If not us, who? Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Intellectual Disabilities, 31, 122-126. Wehman, P. (2006b). Life Beyond the Classroom: Transition Strategies for Young People With Disabilities. Baltimore, Md.: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co. Reference List
Wehman, P. (2011). Essentials in Transition Planning. Baltimore, MD. Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co. Wehman, P., Revell,G., and Brooke, V. (2003). Competitive employment: Has it become the "First Choice" Yet? Journal of Disability Policy Studies, 14(3), 163-173. Wehman, P., Targett, P., West, M., & Kregel, J. (2005). Productive work and employment for persons with Traumatic Brain Injury: What have we learned after 20 years? Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 20(2), 115-127.
Wehmeyer, M.L., Parent, W., Lattimore, J., Obremski, S., Poston, D., & Rousso, H. (in press). Promoting self-determination and selfdirected employment planning for people with disabilities. Journal of Social Work in Disability and Rehabilitation.
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