2006 2006 Pearson Pearson Education, Education, Inc. Inc.

2006 2006 Pearson Pearson Education, Education, Inc. Inc.

2006 2006 Pearson Pearson Education, Education, Inc. Inc. The American Nation, 12e Mark. C. Carnes and John A. Garraty 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. The Civil War (186165) 11 Chapter

2006 Pearson Education, Inc. 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. The Leaders of the Confederacy Pres. Jefferson Davis VP Alexander Stevens 2006 Pearson Education, Inc.

The Confederate White House 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. A Northern View of Jeff Davis Southerners had seized most federal property in the South and Lincoln had said

would not attempt to retake but did intend to hold two remaining forts in Union hands Fort Sumter, on an island in Charleston harbor Fort Pickens, in Pensacola, Florida 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. When Lincoln sent a naval expedition to re-supply Sumter with food, the South

opened fire on the fort on April 12, 1861 before the ships arrived Major Robert Anderson surrendered the fort 34 hours later 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. MEN PRESENT FOR SERVICE Northern advantages 20 million people

(excluding Kentucky and Missouri) but only 9 million in South (including 3.5 million slaves) Manufacturing 9 times as much as South (including 97% of nations firearms) Far larger and more efficient railway system North had control of

navy and merchant marine (allowing for blockade of South) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Railroad Lines, 1860 2006 Pearson Education, Inc.

Advantages Union 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Confederacy Disadvantages Population 22 million (4 million men of combat age)

Economy- 100,000 factories 1.1 million workers 20,000 miles of railroad $189 million in bank deposits $59 million in gold specie -Abraham Lincoln War fought on confederate soil Lack of military leadership Military Leadership Robert E. Lee Stonewall Jackson

Military Training VMI (Virginia Military Institute) WestPoint Home field advantage Familiar with terrain Morale booster Population 9 million (3.5 million slaves, only 1.2 million men of combat age) Economy- 20,000 factories

101,000 workers 9,000 miles of railroad $47 million in bank deposits $27 million in gold specie 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Southern views Doubted Northern public opinion would support Lincolns use of force Northern manufacturers needed southern markets and merchants depended on southern business

Many Western farmers sent goods down Mississippi If North tried to blockade South, European powers, especially Great Britain, would use force to open southern ports South provided nearly of worlds cottonbelief in power of King Cotton 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. The Union & Confederacy in 1861

Southern military advantages Only had to hold onto what already had Could fight a defensive war: 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Less costly in men and material Of great importance in maintaining morale and

winning outside sympathy Quickly found great commander Boldly exceeded conventional limits of presidential power 2006 Pearson Education, Inc.

Expanded army without Congressional authorization Suspended writ of habeas corpus Even emancipated slaves when believed it was military necessity Also showed patience and depth of character

July 21, 1861 Manassas Junction, Virginia, on a branch of the Potomac called Bull Run 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Union victory turned to defeat with the arrival of Thomas (Stonewall) Jackson and a Virginia brigade that arrived by rail from the

Shenandoah Valley Union men fled back to Washington, abandoning supplies and trampling sightseers Southern troops failed to follow up victory Only real effect was on morale 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Battle of Bull Run (1st Manassas) July, 1861

Lincoln devised broader, more systematic strategy for winning war 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Navy would institute blockade of southern

ports Launch operations in West to control Mississippi Eighteen-year-olds were the largest age group in the first year of the war in both armies. Soldiers were universally called the boys; and officers, even in their thirties, were called old men. One of the most popular war songs was Just Before the Battle, Mother. Lincoln appointed General George B.

McClellan 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Overvie w of the Norths Civil War Strategy :

2006 Pearson Education, Inc. The Anaconda Plan 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Winfield Scott Scott Ulysses S. Grant George George Meade

Meade George George McClellan, McClellan, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Irwin McDowell Ambrose Burnside Joseph Hooker

2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Stonewall Jackson James James Longstreet Longstreet Robert E. Lee 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. George Pickett

Nathan Nathan Bedford Bedford Forrest Forrest Jeb Stuart Republicans held large majorities in both houses of Congress

Democrats supported war measures but objected to way Lincoln was waging war Adopted conservative stance on slavery and race relations Republicans divided into Moderate and Radical wings As war progressed, Radical wing gained in power 2006 Pearson Education, Inc.

1861 Charles Sumner was most prominent radical Senator and Thaddeus Stevens was the rising power in the House Insisted on abolition and full political and civil rights for blacks 2006 Pearson Education, Inc.

Peace Democrats (Copperheads) opposed all measures in support of the war and wanted a negotiated peace Lincoln suspended the writ of habeas corpus in critical areas and applied martial law freely Foreign policy Confederacy counted on European powers to break blockade in order to obtain

cotton Great Britain: 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Had a large supply of cotton on hand when the war broke out By time it was exhausted, had supplies from Egypt and India to help fill gap English crop failures necessitated importing large amounts of northern wheat Most English people favored the North

Casualties of Shiloh (March/April 1862) More Americans fell in two days than in all the battles of the Revolution, War of 1812, and Mexican American War combined Technology responsible for carnage More accurate and faster firing guns

More powerful artillery 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Results Generals experimented with field fortifications Civilians, North and South, stopped thinking of war as romantic adventure

Captured documents revealed Lees plans 70,000 Union troops clashed with 40,000 Confederates At end of day, 22,000 casualties 2006 Pearson Education, Inc.

McClellan failed to press his advantage against an exhausted Lee Lincoln dismissed McClellan BLOODIEST SINGLE DAY OF THE WAR Battle of Antietam Bloodiest Single Day of the WarSeptember 17, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc.

1862 23,000 casualties Antietam: Sharpsburg, Maryland 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Bloody battle in Maryland resulted in a tie and Robert E. Lees army has to retreat back

into Virginia. Lee attacked the north because he needed a victory on northern 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. By summer 1862 convinced that for military reasons and to win European

support, Union should make abolition a war aim Victory at Antietam gave Lincoln opportunity to announce Emancipation Proclamation on September 22, 1862 (to go into effect on January 1, 1863) Emancipation Proclamation freed all slaves in areas in rebellion against the U.S. (in other words, freed slaves in areas the U.S. did not control)

Southerners saw it as an incitement to slave 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. rebellion 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Emancipation in 1863 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. African-American Recruiting

Poster 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. The Famous 54th Massachusetts 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Black Troops Freeing Slaves

2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Union Prison Camp at Andersonville, GA 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Union Survivors Confined more than 33,000 Union prisoners, of which more

than 13,000 died from disease, poor sanitation, malnutrition, overcrowding, or exposure to 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Chancellorsville, Virginia Last meeting between General Stonewall Jackson

and General Robert E. Lee. Stonewall Jackson loses his life after achieving one of the greatest military maneuvers of the Civil War at Chancellorsville, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Key victories at Vicksburg and Gettysburg help the Union wear down the Confederacy.

Gettysburg (July 1-3, 1863) Three-day battle at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania cripples South, turning point of war Union forces under the command of General George Meade defeat Lees Confederate army Ended any hope of South of invading North More than 51,000 soldiers killed, wounded, MIA, Bloodiest battle of the whole war

By Mid-may Vicksburg was under siege and finally surrendered on July 4 Texas and Arkansas cut off from Confederacy Union controlled Mississippi River

Lincoln put Grant in charge of all federal troops west of Appalachians 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Took charge of troops around Chattanooga where

Confederates on the offensive and won a major victory there on November 25 This cleared the way for an invasion of Georgia March 1864 Lincoln summoned Grant to Washington, made him an lieutenant general and gave him supreme command of armies of U.S. 2006 Pearson Education, Inc.

The War in the West, 1863: Vicksburg 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Vicksburg, Mississippi This important battle gave the Union Army control of trade and the Mississippi River, which cut the

Confederacy in half and allowed General Grant to control trade and communication on the river. Southern woes Northern military pressure was eroding southern manpower Naval blockade was reducing economic strength Shortages led to spiraling inflation By 1864, officers coat cost $2,000, cigars $10 each, butter $25 a pound and flour was $275 a barrel

2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Southern railroad lines were wearing out Imported products were scarce Efforts to increase manufacturing inhibited by lack of manpower, capital and technical knowledge Dislike of centralized authority meant no

overarching management of scarce resources 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Northern strengths Economy flourished 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Government purchases stimulated certain lines of manufacturing

Railroads operated close to capacity and with increasing efficiency Farm machinery business boomed because of labor shortages and rise in agricultural prices Extensive Legislation Passed Without theTariff South

1861 Morrill Act in 1862 Congress Homestead Act 1862 Legal Tender Act 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. 1862 Morrill Land Grant Act 1862 Emancipation Proclamation (1/1/1863) 1863 Pacific Railway Act

2006 Pearson Education, Inc. But Grant grasped the truth: victory would come from grinding down the Confederates because Grant could replace his losses in men and material while Lee could not In one month, Grant had suffered

60,000 casualties but Lincoln refused to recall him because he was moving forward Everything changed 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. September 2, 1864 Sherman captured Atlanta

and, ignoring a Confederate feint toward Tennessee, marched south through Georgia, living off the land, practicing total war Objectives of march through Georgia Economic: destroy southern

resources Psychological: convince Southerners cause was hopeless 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Slaves flocked to

Shermans army Sherman took Savannah on December 22, leaving behind a swath of destruction 60 miles wide January 1865, headed north February captured Columbia, South Carolina Soon in North Carolina 2006 Pearson Education, Inc.

Sherma ns March to the Sea through Georgia, 1864 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Sherman Burning Atlanta

2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Sherman Bow-Ties 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. 1864 Election Pres. Lincoln (R) George McClellan (D)

2006 Pearson Education, Inc. The Progress of War: 1861-1865 March 4, Lincoln inaugurated and spoke of mercy, tolerance and reconstruction Richmond fell on April 3

Lee surrendered his remaining 30,000 men to Grant and his 115,000 troops at Appomattox Courthouse on April 9, 1865 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Confederate soldiers required to lay down their arms They could return to their homes in peace Grant agreed to allow the men to retain their horses

Surrender at Appomattox 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. April 9, 1865 2006 Pearson Education, Inc.

Casualties totaled more than 600,000 Enormous property losses, mostly in the South Created hatred, bitterness, corruption,

gross materialism and selfishness Slavery was dead United States was now viewed as a nation not as a union of states Resulted in better integrated society and more technically advanced and productive economy 2006 Pearson Education, Inc.

Civil War Casualties in Comparison to Other Wars Fords Theater (April 14, 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. 1865) 2006 Pearson Education, Inc.

The Assassin John Wilkes Booth 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. The Assassination The American Civil War Homepage http://sunsite.utk.edu/civil-war/warweb.html Abraham Lincoln http://showcase.netins.net/web/creative/ lincoln.html

Abraham Lincoln Association http://www.alincolnassoc.com Assassination of President Abraham Lincoln http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/alhtml/ alrintr.html 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. U.S. Civil War Center http://www.cwc.lsu.edu A Timeline of the Civil War

http://www.historyplace.com/civilwar/ index.html National Civil War Association http://www.ncwa.org 2006 Pearson Education, Inc.

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