Produced By: Behzad Heidarshenas Ph.D in Manufacturing Processes
Produced By: Behzad Heidarshenas Ph.D in Manufacturing Processes Mechanical Engineering Department Fe-Carbon Diagram IRON CARBON CONSTITUTIONAL DIAGRAM-II The following phases are involved in the transformation, occurring with ironcarbon alloys: L - Liquid solution of carbon in iron;
-ferrite Solid solution of carbon in iron. Maximum concentration of carbon in -ferrite is 0.09% at 2719 F (1493C) temperature of the peritectic transformation. The crystal structure of -ferrite is BCC (cubic body centered). Austenite interstitial solid solution of carbon in -iron. Austenite has FCC (cubic face centered) crystal structure, permitting high solubility of carbon up to 2.06% at 2097 F (1147 C). Austenite does not exist below 1333 F (723C) and maximum carbon concentration at this temperature is 0.83%.
-ferrite solid solution of carbon in -iron. -ferrite has BCC crystal structure and low solubility of carbon up to 0.25% at 1333 F (723C). -ferrite exists at room temperature. Cementite iron carbide, intermetallic compound, having fixed composition Fe3C. The following phase transformations occur with iron-carbon alloys: Alloys, containing up to 0.51% of carbon, start solidification with formation of crystals of -ferrite. Carbon content in -ferrite increases up to 0.09% in course solidification, and at 2719 F (1493C) remaining liquid phase and -ferrite perform peritectic transformation, resulting in formation of austenite. Alloys, containing carbon more than 0.51%, but less than 2.06%, form
primary austenite crystals in the beginning of solidification and when the temperature reaches the curve ACM primary cementite stars to form. Iron-carbon alloys, containing up to 2.06% of carbon, are called steels. Alloys, containing from 2.06 to 6.67% of carbon, experience eutectic transformation at 2097 F (1147 C). The eutectic concentration of carbon is 4.3%. In practice only hypoeutectic alloys are used. These alloys (carbon content from 2.06% to 4.3%) are called cast irons When temperature of an alloy from this range reaches 2097 F (1147 C), it contains primary austenite crystals and some amount of the liquid phase. The latter decomposes by eutectic mechanism to a fine mixture of austenite and cementite, called ledeburite. All iron-carbon alloys (steels and cast irons) experience eutectoid transformation at 1333 F (723C). The eutectoid concentration of carbon is
0.83%. When the temperature of an alloy reaches 1333 F (733C), austenite transforms to pearlite (fine ferrite-cementite structure, forming as a result of decomposition of austenite at slow cooling conditions). CRITICAL TEMPERATURE Upper critical temperature (point) A3 is the temperature, below which ferrite starts to form as a result of ejection from austenite in the hypoeutectoid alloys. Upper critical temperature (point) ACM is the temperature, below which cementite starts to form as a result of ejection from austenite in the hypereutectoid alloys. Lower critical temperature (point) A1 is the temperature of the austenite-topearlite eutectoid transformation. Below this temperature austenite does not exist. Magnetic transformation temperature A2 is the temperature below which ferrite is ferromagnetic. PHASE COMPOSITIONS OF THE IRONCARBON ALLOYS AT ROOM TEMPERATURE
Hypoeutectoid steels (carbon content from 0 to 0.83%) consist of primary proeutectoid) ferrite (according to the curve A3) and pearlite. Eutectoid steel (carbon content 0.83%) entirely consists of pearlite. Hypereutectoid steels (carbon content from 0.83 to 2.06%) consist of primary (proeutectoid) cementite (according to the curve ACM) and pearlite. Cast irons (carbon content from 2.06% to 4.3%) consist of proeutectoid cementite C2 ejected from austenite according to the curve ACM , pearlite and transformed ledeburite (ledeburite in which austenite transformed to pearlite. PHASES OF IRON FCC (Austenite) BCC (Ferrite)
HCP (Martensite) Alpha Ferrite, BCC Iron Room Temperature Gamma Austenite, FCC Iron Elevated Temperatures These are PHASES of iron. Adding carbon changes the phase transformation temperature. MICROSTRUCTURE OF AUSTENITE
MICROSTRUCTURE OF PEARLITE Photomicrographs of (a) coarse pearlite and (b) fine pearlite. 3000X MICROSTRUCTURE OF MARTENSITE SOLUBILITY LIMITS BCC ( or Ferrite) Iron cant hold much Carbon, it has a low solubility limit
(0.022%) P 2.14 But, FCC ( or Austenite) Iron can hold up to 2.14% Carbon! E L + Fe3C 4.30 F G x
M O N H 0.76 0.022 Cementite Fe3C C x
6.70 EUTECTOID REACTION (PEARLITE FORMATION) Austenite precipitates Fe3C at Eutectoid Transformation Temperature (727C). Cooling Heating + Fe3C
When cooled slowly, forms Pearlite, which is a micro-contituent made of ferrite () and Cementite (Fe3C), looks like Mother of Pearl. HYPO-EUTECTOID Proeutectoid means it formed ABOVE or BEFORE the Eutectoid Temperature! MICROSTRUCTURE OF HYPOEUTECTOID
HYPO-EUTECTOID STEEL T(C) 1600
1200 +L austenite) 1000 800 +Fe3C r s 727C R S
400 0 Co pearlite 0.77 w =s/(r+s) 600 w =(1-w) L+Fe3C
C o, wt% C 100m Hypoeutectoid steel HYPER-EUTECTOID Proeutectoid means it formed ABOVE or BEFORE the Eutectoid Temperature! MICROSTRCTURE OF HYPEREUTECTOID HYPER-EUTECTOID STEEL
T(C) 1600 L Fe 3C 1200
+L austenite) L+Fe3C 1148C 1000 +Fe3C
=r/(r+s)600 wFe3C w =(1-w Fe3C) 400 0 pearlite R S 1 wpearlite =w
w =S/(R+S) wFe3C =(1-w ) s r 800 0.77 Co
+Fe3C 2 3 4 5 (Fe-C System) Fe 3C (cementite)
1400 6 6.7 C o, wt% C 60m Hypereutectoid steel HEAT TREATMENT Heat treatment is a method used to alter the physical and sometimes chemical properties of a material. The most common application is metallurgical .Heat treatments are also used in the manufacture of many other materials, such as glass.
Heat treatment involves the use of heating or chilling, normally to extreme temperatures, to achieve a desired result such as hardening or softening of a material. Heat treatment techniques include annealing, case hardening, precipitation strengthening, tempering and quenching. It is noteworthy that while the term heat treatment applies only to processes where the heating and cooling are done for the specific purpose of altering properties intentionally, heating and cooling often occur incidentally during other manufacturing processes such as hot forming or welding. TECHNIQUES INVOLVE IN HEAT TREATMENT ANNEALING TEMPERING
QUENCHING NORMALIZING STRESS RELIEVING SPHERODIZING ANNEALING Annealing, process of heat treatment by which glass and certain metals and alloys are rendered less brittle and more resistant to fracture. Annealing minimizes internal defects in the atomic structure of the material and leaves it free from internal stresses that might otherwise be present because of prior processing steps. Ferrous metals and glass are annealed by heating them to high temperatures and cooling them slowly; copper and silver, however, are best annealed by heating and cooling quickly, then immersing in water. TEMPERING
Tempering, in metallurgy and engineering, low-temperature process in the heat treatment of steel by which a desirable balance is obtained between the hardness and toughness of the finished product. Steel articles that have been hardened by quenching, a process of heating to about 870 C (about 1600 F) and cooling rapidly in oil or water, become hard and brittle. Reheating to a lower temperature decreases the hardness somewhat but improves the toughness. The proper balance between hardness and toughness is controlled by the temperature to which the steel is reheated and the duration of the heating. This temperature is controlled by an instrument for measuring high temperatures, known as a pyrometer, or, historically, by observing the color of the oxide film formed on the metal during heating. QUENCHING In materials science, quenching is the rapid cooling of a work piece to obtain certain material properties. It prevents low-temperature processes, such as
phase transformations, from occurring by only providing a narrow window of time in which the reaction is both thermodynamically favorable and kinetically accessible. For instance, it can reduce crystallinity and thereby increase toughness of both alloys and plastics (produced through polymerization). NORMALIZING Normalizing is a type of heat treatment applicable to ferrous metals only. It differs from annealing in that the metal is heated to a higher temperature and then removed from the furnace for air cooling. The purpose of normalizing is to remove the internal stresses induced by heat treating, welding, casting, forging, forming, or machining. Stress, if not controlled, leads to metal failure; therefore, before hardening steel, you should normalize it first to ensure the maximum desired results. Usually, low-carbon steels do not require normalizing; however, if these steels are normalized, no harmful effects result. Castings are usually annealed, rather than normalized; however, some
castings require the normalizing treatment. SPHERODIZING Any process of heating and cooling steel that produces a rounded or globular form of carbide. The spheroidizing methods generally used are: a.) Prolonged heating at a temperature just below the lower critical temperature, usually followed by relatively slow cooling. b.) In the case of small objects of high carbon steels, the spheroidizing result is achieved more rapidly by prolonged heating to temperatures alternately within and slightly below the critical temperature range. c. Tool steel is generally spheroidized by heating to a temperature of 749-804C (1380 1480F) for carbon steels and higher for many alloy tool steels, holding at heat from 1 to 4 hours, and cooling slowly in the furnace.
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