Proton Intensity Upgrades A. Marchionni, Fermilab AD/MID DoE

Proton Intensity Upgrades A. Marchionni, Fermilab AD/MID DoE

Proton Intensity Upgrades A. Marchionni, Fermilab AD/MID DoE Program Review, May 16-18, 2006 Present operation of Main Injector and NuMI NuMI designed for 400 kW, achieved a max beam power of 270 kW Present Proton Plan: multi-batch stacking in Main Injector SNuMI (super-beam upgrades to NuMI) Recycler as an 8 GeV proton pre-injector momentum stacking in the Accumulator Preliminary cost estimates and time scale Conclusions The Main Injector and the rest of the complex s to Soudan SY120 pbar production target NuMI extraction line NuMI beam-line Present operation of Main Injector & NuMI

Main Injector is a rapid cycling accelerator at 120 GeV (presently running at 205 GeV/s) 1.467 s cycle time (for 1 batch injection) up to 6 proton batches (~ 51012 p/batch) are successively injected from Booster into Main Injector at 15 Hz Main Injector has to satisfy simultaneously the needs of the Collider program (anti-proton stacking and transfers to the Tevatron) and NuMI Mixed mode: NuMI & anti-proton stacking (2 s cycle time) two single turn extractions within ~ 1 ms: 1 slip-stacked batch to the anti-proton target 5 batches to NuMI (~2.51013 ppp) in ~ 8 s NuMI only (2 s cycle time) 6 Booster batches extracted to NuMI (~31013 ppp) in ~ 10 s 300 30 Power (kW) Protons per pulse (1012) NuMI first year running 200 20

100 10 May 1 05 March 1 06 May 1 05 March 1 06 1.4E20 pot integrated Peak values max beam power of 270 kW stably for ~ hour peak intensity of 31013 ppp Averages over the last months beam power 170 kW proton intensity 2.31013 ppp cycle spacing 2.2 s Booster performance and projections Booster Average Hourly Rate (loss limits only!) 1.60E+17

1.40E+17 Projections protons/hour 1.20E+17 ~9Hz Limit 1.00E+17 8.00E+16 Design Fallback 6.00E+16 4.00E+16 Doglegs ORBUMP New Correctors 2.00E+16 0.00E+00 1/1/2005 1/1/2006 1/1/2007 1/1/2008

1/1/2009 1/1/2010 Date Booster performance 05/06: ~ 6.51016 protons/hr Multi-batch slip-stacking in MI While running in mixed mode, it is possible to slip-stack 4 out of the 5 NuMI batches, in addition to a slipstacked batch for the anti-proton source final phase of the present Proton Plan: 360 kW, 3.21020 protons/year to NuMI Low intensity test I. Kourbanis, K. Seiya Main Injector capabilities design acceleration rate of 240 GeV/s The current MI RF system consists of 18 stations presently enough power to stably accelerate up to 61013 ppp at 205 GeV/sec (1.467 s cycle time) We have a total of 3 spare RF cavities allowing the expansion to 20 stations adding 2 more RF stations will allow us to increase the max accel. rate to 240 GeV/sec reducing MI cycle

time to 1.333 s a t-jump system and an upgrade of the RF system are the major modifications that would allow to raise the intensity above 61013 protons/ cycle Each RF cavity has an extra port available for the installation of a second power tube (up to ~ 1.5 MW beam power) SNuMI stage 1: 700 kW Recycler as an 8 GeV proton pre-injector S. Nagaitsev, E. Prebys, M. Syphers First Report of the Proton Study Group, Beamsdoc-2178 After the Collider program is terminated, we can use the Recycler as a proton pre-injector Booster batches are injected at 15 Hz rep rate if we use the Recycler to accumulate protons from the Booster while MI is running, we can save 0.4 s for each 6 Booster batches injected 6 batches (51012 p/batch) at 120 GeV every 1.333 s 430 kW Recycler momentum aperture is large enough to allow slip-stacking operation in Recycler, for up to 12 Booster batches injected 6 batches are slipped with respect to the other 6 and, at the time they line up, they are extracted to MI in a single turn and there re-captured and accelerated ~4.31012 p/batch, 95% slip-stacking efficiency

4.91013 ppp at 120 GeV every 1.333 s 700 kW Multi-batch slip-stacking in Recycler I. Kourbanis, K. Seiya, beams-doc-2179 Recycler momentum aperture measured to be 1.5% full span Two RF systems required each at a frequency of 528090001300 Hz, producing 150 kV each Transient beam loading compensation is crucial R/Q smaller than 100 SNuMI stage 2: 1.2 MW Momentum stacking in the Accumulator D. McGinnis, Beams-doc-1782, 2138, 1783, 2253 After the Collider program is terminated, we can also use the Accumulator in the Anti-proton Source as a proton ring after acceleration in the Booster, beam will be transferred to the Accumulator the Accumulator was designed for momentum stacking momentum stack 3 Booster batches (4.61012 p/batch) every 200 ms no need to cog in the Booster when injecting into the Accumulator longitudinal emittance dilution of ~ 20% instead of

a factor 3 like in slip-stacking Box Car stack in the Recycler load in a new Accumulator batch every 200 ms place 6 Accumulator batches sequentially around the Recycler Load the Main Injector in a single turn 13 SNuMI scenarios Slip-stacking in Recycler Ring Momentum Momentum stacking in stacking in Accumulator 1 Accumulator 2 Booster batch intensity 4.3E12 4.6E12 4.6E12 No. Booster batches 12

18 18 Booster average rep rate (Hz) 10.5 15 15 MI cycle time (s) 1.333 1.333 1.2 MI intensity (ppp) 4.9E13 8.2E13 8.2E13 Beam power to NuMI (kW)

700 1200 1300 Protons/hr 1.3E17 2.2E17 2.5E17 Charge for SNuMI stage 1, 700 kW R. Dixon, February, 2006 I would now like you to develop a conceptual design and cost estimate for a modification to the Recycler and Main Injector to provide a 0.7 MW 120 GeV beam to NuMI after the collider program ends. The main feature of this upgrade is to convert the Recycler into a proton accumulator, shortening the Main Injector cycle time from 2.2 seconds to 1.5 seconds. The conceptual design should include modifications to the Recycler and the Main Injector such as the removal of pbar specific devices, modification of injection and extraction lines, slip stacking, collimation, dampers. The conceptual design should include all NuMI target hall modifications required operate the facility at 0.7 MW such as the target, horns, and the decay pipe cooling system. The conceptual design should consider all aspects of high power acceleration and transport; beam stability, RF power, instrumentation, collimation, transport and targeting, radiation shielding, groundwater and air activation for all facilities.

The conceptual design and cost estimate should be documented in a report suitable for presentation to the Directorate in the fall of 2006. SNuMI 700 kW organization Recycler Ring Upgrades P. Derwent 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. NuMI Upgrades M. Martens 1. Recycler Ring modifications (Cons Gattuso) 1. Removal of pbar specific devices 2. Injection/extraction lines 2. 3. Kickers Slip-stacking schemes (K. Seiya) Recycler Ring 53 MHz RF system (D. Wildman) Dampers (P. Adamson) Instrumentation (P. Prieto) 3. 1. BPM upgrade Beam physics & Instability issues

B. Zwaska 1. 2. 3. MI & RR Impedance measurements Longitudinal & transverse instabilities and damping Electron cloud Primary proton beam (S. Childress) 1. Power supplies, magnet cooling and NuMI kickers for 1.5 s operation Target & horns (J. Hylen) 1. Target and Horns 2. Water cooling of stripline 3. Fabrication of stripline section for ME beam 4. Cooling of target chase Decay pipe & hadron absorber (B. Lundberg) 1. Decay pipe upstream window 2. Decay pipe cooling 3. Eventual upgrade Hadron Absorber Booster E. Prebys 1. 2.

Booster rep rate up to 9.3 Hz Beam quality Radiation safety for RR, MI and NuMI T. Leveling 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Shielding assessment Ground water protection Surface water protection Activated air emission Residual activation Main Injector I. Kourbanis 1. Additional RF cavities Engineering Support R. Reilly 1. 2. 3. NuMI Target Hall and components (2 FTE)

Proton delivery (1 FTE) Support from PPD on FEA Recycling the Recycler Take anti-proton specific devices out Build new transfer lines direct injection into RR new extraction line at RR-30 rework RR-30 straight section 53 MHz RF system for Recycler Instrumentation Have preliminary designs and cost estimates Injection line from MI-8 to RR Extraction line in the 30 section Upgrading NuMI Issues: running the primary proton line at higher rep-rate removing larger heat load in the target chase thermal shock, heat damage and radiation damage to target and horns thermal shock to decay pipe window and beam absorber radiation safety Off-axis neutrino beam better optimized in Medium Energy configuration

target less constrained, it is external to the horn ! Medium energy target Engineering support freed up after shutdown to look into these issues for the major NuMI components SNuMI preliminary cost estimate Booster: repetition rate upgrade to 15 Hz Main Injector: RF and shielding upgrades Recycler: new injection and extraction transfer lines, RF systems Accumulator: new injection and extraction lines, new RF systems NuMI: upgrade primary proton line, new target and horn, target chase cooling, installation of Helium bags, work cell upgrade Includes only M&S, no inflation, no contingency 700 kW cost estimates (k$) 1 MW cost estimates (k$) Booster 600 Main Injector 700 12500 Recycler 5700

1000 Accumulator 15000 NuMI 2900 3500 TOT 9900 32000 SNuMI preliminary time scale Main assumptions: 2010: year-long shutdown to complete all upgrades required for 1 MW 2011: start using the Recycler at 400 kW and gradually implement slip-stacking over multi-batches up to 700 kW beam power 2012: short shutdown to fix eventual problems and start momentum stacking in Accumulator, increasing beam power to 1 MW 2013: run steadily at 1 MW capability actually up to 1.2-1.3 MW Efficiency factors:

Complex uptime: 0.85 Average to peak performance: 0.9 Year lineRunning time NuMI uptime: 0.9 Initial power Final power (weeks) (kW) (kW) Integrated protons/year 2011 44 400 700 5.31020 2012 38 700 1000 7.31020

2013 44 1000 1000 9.91020 BN Ri ng L A nu GS CE e xp ts RN W AN F KA L RM S EN ND (IS IS Nu ) Te Mi v ni

Bo on e Nu Nu MI ( a K2 K MI ( p ver a ea k p ge) Nu ow M er Nu I( de ) MI s Nu MI s ign ) Nu MI ta MI R R c ki ng Ac cu sta c Nu m . s ki ng MI

ta Pr ck ot on ing Dr ive r CN JPa GS rk -T 2K Ma in power (kW) The power of neutrino beams 2.00E+03 1.80E+03 Neutrino beams power 1.60E+03 1.40E+03 1.20E+03

1.00E+03 8.00E+02 6.00E+02 4.00E+02 2.00E+02 0.00E+00 J-Park: path to a few MW facility is being studied Conclusions The Main Injector has presently operated up to ~ 3.151013 ppp and at a maximum beam power of 270 kW With the termination of the Collider program, a set of upgrades to the accelerator complex can increase the beam power up to 1.2-1.3 MW the use of the Recycler as a proton pre-injector, together with multi-batch slip-stacking, allows to reach a power of 700 kW adding 2 RF cavities in MI allows 10% reduction of MI cycle time momentum stacking in the Accumulator allows to increase the beam power to 1.2-1.3 MW A project is being developed to achieve these goals, addressing all issues both in the accelerator complex and the NuMI beam-line a conceptual design and cost estimate for the 700

kW first phase is due in the fall of 2006 Cost estimates details 700 kW cost estimate (k$) 1 MW cost estimates (k$) Booster Transformers in bias supplies Feeder 480 V distribution system Sub-totals Main Injector RF system upgrade Gamma-t jump Shielding Sub-totals Recycler Decommissioning anti-proton devices New injection line New extraction line Rework MI30 straight section Abort Line 53 MHz RF system Dampers Instrumentation (DCCT, BPM,..) Infrastructure Manpower

7.5MHz RF system Sub-totals Accumulator NuMI Primary proton beam Target Horn, strip-line, power supply Target chase cooling Helium bags Work cell upgrade Sub-totals Totals 200 300 100 600 12000 500 700 700 12500 100 800 1200 100 1000 1000 300 500

600 100 5700 1000 1000 15000 900 300 1200 2500 500 2900 1000 3500 9900 32000 Slip-stacking A scheme to merge two Booster batches to double proton intensity on pbar production target Merged bunch train in MI E 1st Batch

2nd Batch l ce De er Ac c el e ra t e e at Time 1st Booster Batch Injected into MI 2nd Booster Batch K. Koba Seiya et. al., PAC2003 during last year achieved 81012

protons on the anti-proton target Main Injector ramps Schematic of MI RF Cavity Tunnel Bias Supply Bus Bar 0 - 2500 Amps C enter In 90 F Cavity Water @ 35 GPM Cavity Line 95 F Power Ampl Water @ 35 GPM Locate d Ceilin g 4 Kwat t R F Drive DC Scr een Volt Filame nt V olt Cathod e R F Mon Anode R F Mon Pneuma tic Cavity

Short 175 Kw att Power Amplif ier 128&22 5 MHz Mode Damper Coupli ng 128 MH z Mode Damper L oop Beam D irection & Cent er Line Ferrit e Tuner Ferrit e T uner 71 As Vie wed 1/4

F rom Ais le Side Present Main Injector Cavity Electron cloud effects ? Electron Cloud can limit the performance of high-power positron, proton, and ion machine Simulations suggest that MI might be near a threshold 8.21013 5.41013 31013 M. Furman (LBL) FERMILAB-PUB-05-258-AD Bunch intensity Activities in Electron Cloud started investigation of dynamic pressure rises around the ring using ion pumps presently installing two ion gauges at different locations (better bandwidth ?) borrowed an electron detector from Argonne (RFA type) being installed directly measures electron current incident on the beampipe Collaboration with LBL on simulations M. Furman, J. Corlett, B. Zwaska, X. Zhang

Simulation of e-cloud and beam dynamics in MI P. Spentzouris, E. Stern Collaboration with SLAC on SEY B. Kirby, W. Chou directly measures secondary emission yield of MI beam-pipe The NuMI primary proton line Total length ~ 350 m Recycler NuMI line NuMI extraction Lambertsons Main Injector MI tunnel bringing the protons to the correct pitch of 58 mrad trim magnets bending down by 156 mrad final focus NuMI Primary Proton Line 35 mm aperture

95% beam size 7 mm Specifications: fractional beam losses below 10-5 Large aperture line ! T2K - JPARC

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