Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries Katy Brner &

Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries Katy Brner &

Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries Katy Brner & the InfoVis Lab School of Library and Information Science [email protected] NII, Tokyo Japan November 21st, 2005 Visual Interfaces to Digitial Libraries The accelerating rate of scientific and technical discovery, typified by the ever-shortening time period for the doubling of information currently

estimated at 18 months causes new topics to emerge at increasing speed. Libraries have a hard time just cataloguing the large amount of produced documents. Scientists and practitioners who must read and process relevant documents are in need of new tools that can help them to identify and manage this flood of information. Visual Interfaces to digital libraries apply powerful data analysis and information visualization techniques to generate visualizations of large document sets. The visualizations are intended to help humans mentally organize, electronically access, and manage large, complex information spaces and can be seen as a value-adding service to digital libraries. This talk motivates the design and usage of visual interfaces to digital libraries, reviews diverse commercially successful systems, and discusses opportunities and challenges.

Reference: Brner, Katy and Chen, Chaomei (Eds.) (2002). Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries. Springer Verlag, LNCS 2539. Katy Brner: Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries, NII Talk, Tokyo, Japan, Nov 21th, 2005. Overview 3. Motivation Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries (DL)

o Research Systems o Commercial Interfaces Collaborative Information Visualization Environments 4. Top Ten List of Major Challenges 1. 2. Katy Brner: Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries, NII Talk, Tokyo, Japan, Nov 21th, 2005.

1. Limitations of Todays Interfaces to DL Facing the Information Flood: Information available in electronic form doubles every 18 months. Human perception stays constant. Almost no development in online interfaces. Cant pack more text.

Lets see how much our means of accessing information have changed using http://www.archive.org/. Katy Brner: Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries, NII Talk, Tokyo, Japan, Nov 21th, 2005. Yahoo Oct 17, 1996 Katy Brner: Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries, NII Talk, Tokyo, Japan, Nov 21th, 2005. Yahoo

Sept 2, 2002 Katy Brner: Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries, NII Talk, Tokyo, Japan, Nov 21th, 2005. Yahoo Nov 21st, 2005 Katy Brner: Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries, NII Talk, Tokyo, Japan, Nov 21th, 2005. Amazon Sept 02, 1999

Katy Brner: Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries, NII Talk, Tokyo, Japan, Nov 21th, 2005. Amazon Sept 2, 2002 Katy Brner: Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries, NII Talk, Tokyo, Japan, Nov 21th, 2005. Amazon Nov 21st, 2005 Katy Brner: Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries, NII Talk, Tokyo, Japan, Nov 21th, 2005.

Facing the Information Flood: Information available in electronic form doubles every 18 months. Human perception stays constant. Opportunity & Challenge: Shift users mental load from slow reading to faster perceptual processes such as visual pattern recognition. Facilitated by: CPU speed & hard disk sizes have increased by two orders of magnitude. Bandwidth: Since the invention of the web browser, international IP bandwidth deployments have more than doubled each year.

Monitor resolution has increased by a factor of 4 (800x600 -> 1600x1200). Katy Brner: Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries, NII Talk, Tokyo, Japan, Nov 21th, 2005. Katy Brner & Chaomei Chen (Eds): Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries. Springer Verlag, LNCS 2539, 2002. Katy Brner: Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries, NII Talk, Tokyo, Japan, Nov 21th, 2005. 2. Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries

Present search results not as rank-ordered lists of matching documents but as clusters of semantically similar documents. Katy Brner: Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries, NII Talk, Tokyo, Japan, Nov 21th, 2005. VisDL to ISIs Web of Science Interface Katy Brner: Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries, NII Talk, Tokyo, Japan, Nov 21th, 2005. VisDL to IUBs Art Image Database

Katy Brner: Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries, NII Talk, Tokyo, Japan, Nov 21th, 2005. 3-D VisDL to IUBs Art Image Database head into a search result - get inside a head Katy Brner: Visual Interfaces for Semantic Information Retrieval and Browsing. Vladimir Groimenko and Chaomei Chen (Eds.), Visualizing the Semantic Web: XML-based Internet and Information Visualization, Springer Verlag, Chapter 7, pp. 99-115, 2002. Katy Brner: Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries, NII Talk, Tokyo, Japan, Nov 21th, 2005.

Katy Brner: Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries, NII Talk, Tokyo, Japan, Nov 21th, 2005. VisDL Usability Studies Comparison of text-based and 2-D desktop interface and 3-D immersive CAVE interface. Error rates and completion times for a range of different tasks.

Steep learning curves for 2-D & 3D visualization & 3D input devices, 3D navigation. A comparison of free sorting results for images by human subjects and by Latent Semantic Analysis. Katy Brner: Searching for the perfect match: A comparison of free sorting results for images by human subjects and by Latent Semantic Analysis, Information Visualisation 2000, Symposium on Digital Libraries, London, England, 19 -21 July, pp. 192-197, 2000.

Katy Brner: Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries, NII Talk, Tokyo, Japan, Nov 21th, 2005. Other Research Systems not captured in the book GRIDL HCI Lab U Maryland applied to court cases

Katy Brner: Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries, NII Talk, Tokyo, Japan, Nov 21th, 2005. Jair Space (by Mark Foltz, MIT, 1995) Designing Navigable Information Spaces (Source: http://www.infoarch.ai.mit.edu/jair/) Katy Brner: Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries, NII Talk, Tokyo, Japan, Nov 21th, 2005. NicheWorks: The Chicago Tribune Website By Graham Wills, Bell

Labs (Lucent Technology). A set of visualization tools for very large graphs. MOMspider plus layout algorithms for very large graphics. (Source: http://www.belllabs.com/user/gwills/NI CHEguide/nichepaper.h tml)

Katy Brner: Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries, NII Talk, Tokyo, Japan, Nov 21th, 2005. Smithsonian Institution's HistoryWired: A few of our favorite things. This experimental site introduces visitors to some of the three million

objects held by the National Museum of American History, Behring Center. http:// historywired.si.edu /index.html SmartMoney Katy Brner: Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries, NII Talk, Tokyo, Japan, Nov 21th, 2005. Spatial Worlds for Information Retrieval

and Learning Maps electronic card catalog searches in libraries can be projected into a virtual architectural world, where spatial qualities can provide orientation and increase intellectual productivity. (Source:

http://www.arch.columbia. edu/DDL/research/SWIRL/ ) Katy Brner: Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries, NII Talk, Tokyo, Japan, Nov 21th, 2005. Katy Brner: Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries, NII Talk, Tokyo, Japan, Nov 21th, 2005. 3-D DL interface User interfaces for information strolling on a digital library Mikiya Tani, Toshiyuki Kamiya, and Shunji Ichiyama, Kansai C&C Labs. NEC Corp.

(Source: http://www.cc.gatech.edu/gvu/people/Visitors/Mikiya.Tani/report/ISDL/) Katy Brner: Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries, NII Talk, Tokyo, Japan, Nov 21th, 2005. Shared Knowledge Garden (Source: Crossley et al., BT Laboratory, UK) Katy Brner: Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries, NII Talk, Tokyo, Japan, Nov 21th, 2005. (Source: http://www.cybergeography.org/atlas/info_spaces.html)

Katy Brner: Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries, NII Talk, Tokyo, Japan, Nov 21th, 2005. Commercial Systems: Visual Interfaces for Search & Browsing KartOO by Laurent and Nicolas Baleydier Organizes search results retrieved from relevant web search engines by topics and displays them on a 2-dimensional map.

Each Web page is represented by a ball. Size of the ball corresponds ~ relevance to the query. Colorcoded links suggest how the documents interrelate. Resting the mouse pointer over a "ball" causes a brief description of the contents to appear. http://kartoo.com/ Katy Brner: Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries, NII Talk, Tokyo, Japan, Nov 21th, 2005. Katy Brner: Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries, NII Talk, Tokyo, Japan, Nov 21th, 2005.

Antarcti.ca System Inc.'s Visual Net product Provides visual interface to the National Library of Medicine's PubMed database, in particular the Anatomy/Body Regions section. Initial data map shows the top-level Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) categories arranged alphabetically in rows from left to right, top to bottom. Users can click on an area of interest to zoom into the corresponding area, causing an

enlarged version of the area to appear further subdivided into subcategories, if there are any. The subcategories are listed in the legend on the left, and labeled in bold on the map. Alternatively, users can filter out documents of interest by entering a keyword in the search window. Matching documents will be marked on the map to facilitate visual browsing based on the Boolean search result. http://pubmed.antarcti.ca/start

Katy Brner: Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries, NII Talk, Tokyo, Japan, Nov 21th, 2005. Brner, Katy & Mostafa, Javed (March 2005) International Journal on Digital Libraries. Special Issue on Information Visualization Interfaces for Retrieval and Analysis. Springer-Verlag, 5(1). Katy Brner: Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries, NII Talk, Tokyo, Japan, Nov 21th, 2005. (Source: Microsoft http:// research.microsoft.com/ ui/TaskGallery/)

Katy Brner: Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries, NII Talk, Tokyo, Japan, Nov 21th, 2005. 3. Collaborative Information Visualization Environments Memory Palaces Provide intuitive, efficient, and collaborative document access for a scholarly community. Mirror Gardens

Visualize user interaction data to evaluate the effectiveness and usability, to optimize design properties, or to examine the evolving user community of a world. Katy Brner: Twin Worlds: Augmenting, Evaluating, and Studying ThreeDimensional Digital Cities and Their Evolving Communities. In Makoto Tanabe, Peter van den Besselaar, and Toru Ishida (eds), Digital Cities II: Computational and Sociological Approaches, Springer Verlag, LNCS 2362, pp. 256-269, 2002. Katy Brner: Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries, NII Talk, Tokyo, Japan, Nov 21th, 2005.

Indiana Universitys Collaborative Information Universe This project is a collaboration between the School of Library and Information Science and UITS Advanced Visualization Laboratory. The project's goal is to provide a 3D web-based collaboration mechanism for all IU faculty, staff and students on any of the eight IU campuses, located throughout the state of Indiana.

http://iuni.slis.indiana.edu/ Katy Brner: Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries, NII Talk, Tokyo, Japan, Nov 21th, 2005. Katy Brner: Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries, NII Talk, Tokyo, Japan, Nov 21th, 2005. Visualizing Social Diffusion Patterns in 3D (Virtual Worlds) (Brner & Penumarthy, 2003 & 2004) Katy Brner: Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries, NII Talk, Tokyo, Japan, Nov 21th, 2005. VLearn 3D Vis

(Brner, Hazlewod, Jones, Lee & Penumarthy, 2003) Temporal-spatial distribution of Conference attendees Conference worlds are represented by square, perspective maps, each labeled by its name. Worlds accessed at the beginning of the conference are placed at the bottom, worlds accessed later toward the top. Next to each world is a circular

snapshot of the virtual venue. Short descriptions of the main sessions are added as text. Major jumps between worlds are visualized by transparent lines. The thickness of each line corresponds to the number of traveling users. Color coding was used to denote the chronological paths of the conference sessions. Collaborative Spatial-Semantic

Information Navigation Chen, Chaomei and Brner, Katy. (Feb. 2005). The Spatial-Semantic Impact of a Collaborative Information Virtual Environment on Group Dynamics. PRESENCE: Teleoperators and Viortual Environments. Special Issue on Collaborative Information Visualization Environments, 14(1): pp. 81-103. Katy Brner: Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries, NII Talk, Tokyo, Japan, Nov 21th, 2005. Katy Brner: Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries, NII Talk, Tokyo, Japan, Nov 21th, 2005. Katy Brner: Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries, NII Talk, Tokyo, Japan, Nov 21th, 2005.

Katy Brner: Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries, NII Talk, Tokyo, Japan, Nov 21th, 2005. Katy Brner: Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries, NII Talk, Tokyo, Japan, Nov 21th, 2005. Katy Brner: Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries, NII Talk, Tokyo, Japan, Nov 21th, 2005. Katy Brner: Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries, NII Talk, Tokyo, Japan, Nov 21th, 2005. 4. Top Ten List of Major Challenges detailed in Borner & Chen book 1.

2. 3. 4. 5. Theoretical Foundations. Although principles for perception and cognition, principles for computer graphics, and principles for humancomputer interaction do exist, they do not lead themselves readily in the form of design principles. Many principles are tightly coupled with particular environments and it is hard to generalize them. More often, the same fundamental problem disguises itself in different forms, which also

complicates the process of putting available theories into practice. Foundation works are urgently needed. Empirical Foundations. It is crucial to make clear what has been empirically proven to be useful and beneficial. Scalability. Computing and data processing power is growing faster, so is the volume of the data we need to handle. Visual scalability is the capability of visualization tools to display large datasets effectively, in terms of either the number or the dimension of individual data elements. Labeling. Displaying readable labels and selecting meaningful labels. Individual Differences. One size can hardly fit all. Spatial ability indicates an individuals ability to recognize and handle spatial relationships of objects. Research in human-computer interaction has shown that individual

differences can be the most significant factor in ones performance. Katy Brner: Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries, NII Talk, Tokyo, Japan, Nov 21th, 2005. Supporting Collaborative Work. Given the individual differences we need to accommodate and the diversity of social norms in cyberspace, supporting collaborative work is a challenging in its own right. 7. Benchmarking and Standardization. The provision of commonly accessible and comparable test collections has been proven useful in several fields, especially test collections in information retrieval and associated text retrieval conferences (TREC).

8. Evaluation is needed to answer what has worked. 9. Personalization. Pro-active, customized, and personalized information delivery is an increasing trend in digital libraries. Visual interfaces are in a good position to organize and re-organize the way an underlying digital library is presented to a client, tailored accordingly to the clients background and access history. 10. Modularization and standardization of digital library services and information visualization services will save valuable resources from re-inventing wheels. 6. Katy Brner: Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries, NII Talk, Tokyo, Japan, Nov 21th, 2005.

Acknowledgements Thanks go to Helen Atkins, ISI and Eileen Fry, Indiana University for discussions concerning the Science Citation Index Expanded and the Dido Database. The research was supported by a High Performance Network Applications grant of Indiana University. Katy Brner: Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries, NII Talk, Tokyo, Japan, Nov 21th, 2005. Publications Book

Brner, Katy and Chen, Chaomei (Eds.) (2002). Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries. Springer Verlag, LNCS 2539. Edited Journals Brner, Katy & Navarro-Prieto, Raquel (Feb. 2005) PRESENCE: Teleoperators and Viortual Environments. Special Issue on Collaborative Information Visualization Environments. MIT Press, 14(1). Brner, Katy & Mostafa, Javed (March 2005) International Journal on Digital Libraries. Special Issue on Information Visualization Interfaces for Retrieval and Analysis. Springer-Verlag, 5(1). Papers

Chen, Chaomei and Brner, Katy. (Feb. 2005). The Spatial-Semantic Impact of a Collaborative Information Virtual Environment on Group Dynamics. PRESENCE: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments. Special Issue on Collaborative Information Visualization Environments, 14(1): pp. 81-103. Brner, Katy and Penumarthy, Shashikant. (2003). Social Diffusion Patterns in ThreeDimensional Virtual Worlds. Information Visualization, 2(3):182-198. Brner, Katy and Chen, Chaomei. (2002). Visual Interfaces for Digital Libraries: Motivation, Utilization, and Socio-Technical Challenges. In Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries. Brner, K. and Chen, C. (Eds.), Springer Verlag, LNCS 2539, pp. 1-9.

Chen, Chaomei and Brner, Katy. (2002). Top Ten Problems in Visual Interfaces of Digital Libraries. In Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries. Brner, K. and Chen, C. (Eds.), Springer Verlag, LNCS 2539, pp. 227-232. Brner, Katy. (2002). Visual Interfaces for Semantic Information Retrieval and Browsing. In Groimenko, Vladimir and Chen, Chaomei (Eds.), Visualizing the Semantic Web: XML-based Internet and Information Visualization, Springer Verlag, Chapter 7, pp. 99-115. Katy Brner: Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries, NII Talk, Tokyo, Japan, Nov 21th, 2005.

Brner, Katy, Feng, Ying and McMahon, Tamara. (2002). Collaborative Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries. Marchionini, G. & Hersh, W. (eds), Second ACM+IEEE Joint Conference on Digital Libraries, July 14-18, 2002, Portland, Oregon, USA, ACM Press, pp. 279-280. Brner, Katy and Chen, Chaomei. (2002). JCDL Workshop: Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries. Marchionini, G. & Hersh, W. (eds), Second ACM+IEEE Joint Conference on Digital Libraries, July 14-18, 2002, Portland, Oregon, USA, ACM Press, p. 425. Brner, Katy. (2001). iScape: A collaborative memory palace for digital library search results. Proceedings of the International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, New Orleans, LA, August 5-10, M. J. Smith, G. Salvendy, D. Harris, R. J. Koubek (Eds) Usability Evaluation and Interface Design, Volume 1, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, London, pp. 1160-1164. Brner, Katy. (2001). Twin Worlds: Visualization of User Interaction Data to Study Adaptive, 3-Dimensional, Collaborative Spaces and Their Communities. In Stephan Weibelzahl (Ed.)

Workshop on Empirical Evaluations of Adaptive Systems, 8th International Conference on User Modeling. Sonthofen, Germany, July 13, pp. 33-40. Brner, Katy, Dillon, Andrew and Dolinsky, Margaret. (2000). LVis - Digital Library Visualizer. Information Visualisation 2000, Symposium on Digital Libraries, London, England, 19 -21 July, pp. 77-81. Brner, Katy. (2000). Searching for the perfect match: A comparison of free sorting results for images by human subjects and by Latent Semantic Analysis, Information Visualisation 2000, Symposium on Digital Libraries, London, England, 19 -21July, pp. 192-197. Brner, Katy. (2000). Extracting and visualizing semantic structures in retrieval results for browsing. ACM Digital Library Conference, San Antonio, Texas, June 2-7, pp. 234-235. Brner, Katy. (2000). Visible Threads: A smart VR interface to digital libraries. In Robert F. Erbacher, Philip C. Chen, Jonathan C. Roberts & Craig M. Wittenbrink (eds.) Visual Data

Exploration and Analysis VII, Proceedings of SPIE, San Jose, CA, 23-28 January, Volume 3960, pp. 228-237. Katy Brner: Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries, NII Talk, Tokyo, Japan, Nov 21th, 2005.

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