Myths vs. Facts Reflections on ADHD Richard Lougy,
Myths vs. Facts Reflections on ADHD Richard Lougy, LMFT Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist School Psychologist & David Rosenthal, M.D. Child, Adolescent and Adult Psychiatrist Published Authors and Lecturers on ADHD ADHD: A Survival Guide for Parents and Teachers (Hope Press/2002) Teaching Young Children with ADHD: Successful Strategies and Practical Interventions for PreK-3 (Corwin Press/2007) The School Counselors Guide to ADHD: What to Know and What to Do to Help Your Students (Corwin Press/March/2009) www.thesekidsaredrivingmecrazy.com IS ADHD A MYTHICAL DISORDER?
ADHD is not just a temporary state a child will outgrow. ADHD is not a mythical disorder recently fabricated by drug companies or the American Psychiatric Association descriptions go back to 1902. ADHD has been researched both in the United States and in the international mental health community. THEORY VERSUS SCIENTIFIC FACT
Some educators and parents become confused when ADHD is described as just a theory. In popular usage the concept of a theory often implies rather weakly supported thoughts. In science, theories are proposed, then tested and tentatively accepted or discarded. If attempts to falsify a theory fail, the theory is considered likely to be correct, but it is still called a theory.
ADHD IS A COMPLEX SET OF BEHAVIORS Research has shown that a complex set of behaviors has been observed in children and adolescents identified with ADHD. Core Symptoms: Holy trinity - Inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. In addition to core symptoms, they can have difficulty following rules and display tremendous variability in task performance.
Current research suggests behavioral inhibition or poor regulation of behavior is the hallmark of ADHD. DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA Essential feature is a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that is more frequent and severe than is typically observed in other children of comparable level of development. To be diagnosed with ADHD, some impairment must be present in at least two settings and there must be evidence of interference with developmentally appropriate social, academic, or
occupational functioning (DSM-IV-TR 2000). DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA Diagnostic Criteria cont. Signs of the disorder may be minimal or absent: 1. 2. 3. 4. When the child is under strict control, is in a novel setting Is engaged in especially interesting activities Is in a one-on-one situation When experiencing frequent rewards for
appropriate behavior. MANIFESTATIONS OF ADHD The current diagnosis of ADHD is divided into four categories. ADHD: ADHD: ADHD: ADHD: Combined Type Predominantly Inattentive Type Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Type Not Otherwise Specified (NOS) MANIFESTATIONS OF ADHD ADHD: Combined Type
A child who presents with predominantly inattention and hyperactivity, but not significantly impulsivity. The fidgety child who has difficulty staying in his seat, difficulty finishing assignments, often loses assignments, easily distracted by classroom noises, and often forgets daily routines without reminders. MANIFESTATIONS OF ADHD ADHD: Predominantly Inattentive Type Applies to a child who presents with inattention, but neither hyperactivity nor impulsivity.
Child is often seen as a daydreamer or an underachiever, inattentive and unfocused. Distractibility Child can be both internal and external. can struggle with organizational skills and has difficulty finishing work. MANIFESTATIONS OF ADHD ADHD: Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Type Child who presents hyperactivity and impulsivity that is maladaptive and inconsistent with his or her
developmental level. Population of children who bring most challenges to schools and outside agencies. In the classroom, seem always on the go. MANIFESTATIONS OF ADHD ADHD: Not Otherwise Specified (NOS) Prominent symptoms of inattention or hyperactivity/impulsivity that does not meet the
criteria for ADHD. This population, typically adolescents and adults, still present with symptoms that are often diagnosed ADHD-NOS or ADHD in Partial Remission. MANIFESTATIONS OF ADHD ADHD: Not Otherwise Specified (NOS) cont. Even though no longer meeting the criteria for ADHD, they still can present functional impairment in school and work. Late-onset ADHD: all criteria are met except for onset prior to 7 years of age. Symptoms may not become apparent until puberty when teacher demands and expectations in school are more
challenging. PREVALENCE OF ADHD Most experts accept a range of 3% to 7% as the percentage of the population diagnosed with ADHD. Similar percentage in New Zealand, Canada, and Germany (Hoagwood, et. al., 2000). Approximately 4.4 million children ages 4-17 years in the United States have a history of ADHD (Bukstein, 2006). Male to female ratio: 4:1 for the predominantly
hyperactive type, and 2:1 for the predominantly inattentive type. PREVALENCE OF ADHD Over the last three decades, the numbers of children with ADHD has been increasing. 250 % increase from 1990 to 1998. 9.2 % of children in 1996 compared to 1.4% of children in 1979, an increase of 657%. 5% among adults in the U.S. population. 50% to 70% of adolescents continue to show symptoms into adulthood. 90% to 95% of adolescents and adults with ADHD manifesting the inattention component of their disorder (et. al. Lougy, 2007).
WHAT CAUSES ADHD? ADHD is a neurodevelopmental disorder with strong evidence of family genetic risk factors. ADHD is often described as a hypodopaminergic disorder, or a disorder of self-regulation, often called an executive function dysfunction. Most current studies suggest that ADHD symptoms are the result of diminished function of the prefrontal executive centers of the brain cortex.
WHAT CAUSES ADHD? An imbalance of dopamine and norepinephrine, two primary neurotransmitters systems most directly involved in ADHD, contribute to the symptoms we see in ADHD (Asma, J., 2007). These neurotransmitter systems work in concert with each other to control attention, inhibition, and motor planning Other parts of the brain thought to be involved are the fronto-striatal complex, basil ganglia, and the right
anterior frontal lobe (Asma, J. 2007). SIGNIFICANT GENDER RELATED DIFFERENCES There is a difference in symptoms patterns between boys and girls. Girls are generally less impulsive while boys present with more discipline problems. There is a difference in distribution of ADHD subtypes. Girls are more likely to have the inattentive type.
There is a gender difference in associated conditions. Girls are less likely to have a learning disability; lesser risk for depression, conduct disorder, and oppositional defiant disorder than boys with ADHD. PRIMARY SYMPTOMS AND COMMON IMPAIRMENTS ADHD probably represents the extreme end of a spectrum of human traits that we all posses and, as with other human traits, ADHD undergoes developmental changes with maturity. Primary Symptoms: 1. Inattention 2. Hyperactivity
3.Impulsivity PRIMARY SYMPTOMS AND COMMON IMPAIRMENTS Inattention Divided Attention: A student having difficulty taking notes and paying attention to the teacher simultaneously would have a problem with divided attention. Focused Attention: A student who is described as a daydreamer, preoccupied with other activities instead of what is being talked about, would have a problem with focused attention.
Selective Attention: A student who is distracted by outside noises, such as a door closing or a student walking down the aisle to the front of the room, would have a problem with selective PRIMARY SYMPTOMS AND COMMON IMPAIRMENTS Inattention cont. Sustained Attention: A student who is unable to remain on a task long enough to sufficiently complete that task would have a problem with sustained attention or persistence.
Vigilance: A student who is unable to wait for the next spelling word to be presented by the teacher would have a problem with vigilance or readiness to respond (Sam and Michael Goldstein/1990). PRIMARY SYMPTOMS AND COMMON IMPAIRMENTS Inattention cont. Research suggests that deficits in attention are particularly evident under repetitive or boring conditions. Difficulty maintaining effort is closely aligned with difficulty maintaining concentration and effort, especially with school work and instruction that is non-engaging. Inattention
can also present itself at the opposite end of the spectrum hyperfocusing. Tendency to focus on discrete things often leads to the child not hearing or seeing that the class is transitioning to another content area or getting ready for recess or class dismissal. PRIMARY SYMPTOMS AND COMMON IMPAIRMENTS Inattention cont. During complex tasks, attention can be described as comprising of three processes related to selfregulation (Teeter, P., 1998). Maintaining attention over time.
Organizing and self-directing attention Investing effort to attend to tasks. PRIMARY SYMPTOMS AND COMMON IMPAIRMENTS Hyperactivity Research suggests that hyperactivity and impulsivity are different expressions of impaired behavioral inhibition. Hyperactivity is not just high activity, but disorganized and purposeless activity. The classic overactivity found in younger children is often diminished or transformed by adolescence transformed
into subjective feelings of restlessness (Robin, 1998). PRIMARY SYMPTOMS AND COMMON IMPAIRMENTS Hyperactivity cont. Adolescents often will describe feeling confined if asked to sit in a classroom for too long, or when seated at a desk to study for a long period of time. Teachers often will find nonstop talking (especially in girls) and badgering as two common manifestations of hyperactivity in adolescents. PRIMARY SYMPTOMS AND COMMON IMPAIRMENTS
Hyperactivity cont. They seem to manage their great energy by channeling their energy into many activities. ADHD children struggle getting to sleep because of their racing mind and can get as little as 4-5 hours of sleep a night. PRIMARY SYMPTOMS AND COMMON IMPAIRMENTS Impulsivity
Impulsivity is often seen as difficulty waiting ones turn, blurting out before thinking, and interrupting or intruding on others time and space behaviors that are essentially unacceptable in most classrooms. The adolescent can continue to demonstrate high impulsivity Behaviorally Cognitively Emotionally PRIMARY SYMPTOMS AND COMMON IMPAIRMENTS Impulsivity cont.
Behaviorally: Often driven by the moment and have a great difficulty with delayed gratification. Often opt for short-term gratification despite long-term pain for not completing a homework assignment or getting their chores done at home. Can be seen as irresponsible, selfish, immature, lazy, and outright rude. PRIMARY SYMPTOMS AND COMMON IMPAIRMENTS Impulsivity cont. Cognitively: The impulsive adolescent rushes through schoolwork, tests, overlooking crucial
details, making careless mistakes, and writing sloppily. Emotionally: Impulsive teenagers can become easily frustrated, agitated, moody, and lose their temper quickly sometimes accompanied by aggressive and verbal responses directed PREDOMINANTLY INATTENTIVE TYPE OF ADHD Predominantly inattentive-type child may sit and quietly zone out, as they are often internally rather than externally distracted.
They are often underactive, foggy, and cognitively sluggish. Younger children with predominantly inattentive type are unlikely to be referred for professional evaluation of ADHD because they do not display commonly recognized disruptive behavior. PREDOMINANTLY INATTENTIVE TYPE OF ADHD Fewer problems than the hyperactive-impulsive child in making friends and keeping same age friends or getting along with teachers and other adults.
These children have difficulty attending to one thing because they often pay attention to everything! Often make more mistakes than other children in following oral and written instructions. Difficulty sorting out relevant from the irrelevant and can struggle with tasks involving perceptual-motor speed or eye-hand coordination. CLOSING THOUGHTS
ADHD children are asked to interface with a system that makes day-to-day tasks nearly impossible for them. This can be especially frustrating and debilitating for a student if his or her struggles are not understood or appreciated by their teacher, peers or other school staff. ASSOCIATED DISORDERS SOMETIMES PRESENT WITH ADHD Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD)
DISORDERS ASSOCIATED WITH ADHD ADHD is a disorder that presents itself uniquely in each affected child. Some children will present with what professionals refer to as clean ADHD that is ADHD without associated disorders - comorbid disorders. For the majority of children referred for psychiatric evaluation have ADHD complicated with comorbidity.
These associated disorders tend to adversely influence a childs academic and emotional development. OPPOSITIONAL DEFIANT DISORDER (ODD) AND CONDUCT DISORDER (CD) Recent research suggests that approximately 2% to 16% of the general population has ODD. Up to 50% to 60% of children with ADHD, especially ADHD-HI, meet the criteria for ODD (Bloomquist, 1996)
Most affected children develop ODD prior to the age of 8 years. Up to 70 % of children with ADHD referred to clinics are diagnosed with ODD. The longer ODD behaviors persist, the more difficult they are to eliminate. OPPOSITIONAL DEFIANT DISORDER (ODD) AND CONDUCT DISORDER (CD) Symptoms: (DSM-IV-TR 2000) Lose their temper Swear
Often angry or resentful Easily annoyed by others Extremely stubborn Rarely accept blame for their actions Some ODD children go onto CD The longer ODD behaviors persist, the more difficult they are to eliminate. CONDUCT DISORDER (CD) Conduct Disorder presents a serious pattern of antisocial behavior and violation of rights of others.
Symptoms: (DSM-IV-TR 2000) They often bully or intimidate others. Can be physically cruel to people and animals. Can lie or break promises to get what they want. They may steal, run away from home, skip school Deliberately destroy others property and set fires. CONDUCT DISORDER (CD) CD is rarely diagnosed in children younger than the ages of five or six years.
There is some evidence suggesting that CD, unlike ODD, may have a genetic factor which can be expressed through environmental risk factors and stressors. Children with ODD and CD are at risk for developing low self-esteem, being expelled from school, isolating themselves from peers, and for being drawn to other children with similar challenges. CONDUCT DISORDER (CD) While medications can be effective in extreme cases to decrease the severity of ODD and CD,
medication alone will not completely eliminate core behaviors related to ODD and CD. Treatment requires home, school, and psychiatric interventions to find maximum benefit. ADHD does not directly cause ODD and CD, but the presence of ADHD greatly increases the risk for developing ODD and CD. ANXIETY DISORDERS Anxiety disorders can manifest a broad range of signs and symptoms and stem from a number of causes.
When a problem, young children tend to fear monsters and ghosts and separation from caretakers. Older children usually focus on possible natural disasters and family concerns, or have home and school related worries. Secondary anxiety disorder is reported to be present in 34% of the ADHD population. ANXIETY DISORDERS
Separation anxiety is the only anxiety disorder that is specific to childhood. In young children separation anxiety is triggered by a life stress such as a death of a pet, moving to a new home, or a major illness in the family. There is a high probability of finding ADHD-I children with comorbid anxiety disorder. Stimulant medications can at times help with an anxiety disorder if the primary cause is related to ADHD. However, if anxiety is a separate disorder associated with ADHD, stimulants will often elevate the anxiety symptoms.
Anxiety can impact on school related tasks such as test taking, homework, and social interactions MOOD DISORDERS Studies find that children with ADHD and a diagnosis of ODD and CD show a higher rate of depression and anxiety, 30% and 34% respectively (August, et. al., 1996). ADHD-I type are at more risk for depression than those children with ADHD-C (Anastopoulos & Shelton, 2001).
Mood disorders often present themselves differently in children than adults. Children typically display severe irritability, underachievement in school, and an exacerbation of their underlying ADHD features. MOOD DISORDERS Contributing Factors Leading to Depressive and Anxiety Disorders: ADHD children often experience less academic success in school. They
often receive more negative feedback and disciplinary consequences than unaffected children. ADHD traits such as lacking perseverance in the face of failure. Poor behavior inhibition that makes it hard for them to pause and think. Their difficulty regulating their ongoing emotional reactions. BIPOLAR DISORDER There
is a tremendous overlap of symptoms in children with severe ADHD and in those children diagnosed with bipolar disorder (BD, or manic depression). It is not uncommon for children to be initially diagnosed with ADHD and later with BD. Because the symptoms of these disorders overlap so much, a child can sometimes meet the criteria for both diagnosis. Children may show some of the same symptoms as adults diagnosed with BD; however younger children commonly display a mixed state, presenting with symptoms of mania and depression. Manic
state can present itself as uncharacteristic behaviors of extreme enthusiasm, irritability and anger. BIPOLAR DISORDER A child with manic symptoms is sometimes referred to as having bad ADHD because the most common disturbance in manic children is irritability and affective storms, with prolonged and aggressive outbursts. Because the symptoms of irritability can vary in degree and result from a number of causes, the disorder can be mistaken for depression, CD, or ADHD.
Clinicians recommend great caution in diagnosing preschool and early school age children with BD. LEARNING DISABILITIES Estimate that 10% to 40% of children with ADHD have associated learning disorders that meet the criteria for a specific learning disability (Batshaw/2002). Typically children with ADHD and learning disabilities exhibit academic underachievement with the most difficulty with reading and written
language. . LEARNING DISABILITIES ADHD children also have high incidence of central auditory processing disorders and visual-motor functioning problems Many affected children can be accommodated through Section 504 when they do not meet the criteria for placement in special education. LEARNING DISABILITIES
New IDEA 2004 regulations now allow states to discontinue the use of the discrepancy model in lieu of Response to Intervention (RTI) model. Under the New IDEA/2004, ADHD children can be placed in special education under Other Health Impaired (OHI). ADHD is today seen as other health impairments such as asthma when the medical condition impacts on a childs educational performance, the child can qualify for special services under OHI. EXECUTIVE FUNCTION DYSFUNCTION I sometimes forget to turn in my homework.
Am I stupid? My science teacher told the class that: I always had an excuse for doing poorly in his class because I had ADHD, but the rest of you dont. My teacher thinks I dont care and I use ADHD as an excuse. - Ryan, eighth grade student Educators can, because of misinformation, contribute to an atmosphere where ADHD children are: in danger of being emotionally traumatized by being called lazy, unmotivated, irresponsible, and other such words implying moral turpitude instead of neurodevelopmental disability or immaturity. Probably the greatest value in recognizing the neurodevelopmental/neurocognitive domain called EF is to protect a sizable minority of children from
being traumatized by what amounts to adult name-calling. (Denckla, M.B., 2007). Snap Shot Overview of Executive Function Processes (Meltzer, L., & Krishnan, K., 2007) Selecting Planning relevant task goals and organizing information and ideas. Prioritizing and focusing on relevant themes rather than irrelevant details. Initiating
and sustaining activities Snap Shot Overview of Executive Function Processes (Meltzer, L., & Krishnan, K., 2007) Cont. Holding information in working memory Shifting strategies flexibly Inhibiting competing actions
Self-monitoring, checking, and regulating behavior WHAT ARE EXECUTIVE FUNCTIONS? The term executive functions refers to an individuals selfdirected actions that are used to help that person regulate his or her behavior, that is, actions a person performs that help him or her exert more self-control and better reach his or her goals. Executive functions represent the internalization of behavior that helps us anticipate changes in the environment and events that lie ahead in time. It provides a sense of readiness, the ability to inhibit habitual responses, delaying gratification, and adjusting ones actions to changing conditions. It is, in some ways, a cognitive process that serves as a kind of supervisor or scheduler that helps one select a strategy to integrate information from different sources (Lougy, et. al., 2009).
Executive Functions Work Together in Various Combinations (Thomas Brown, Ph.D.) Cluster 1: Organizing, Prioritizing, and Activating Tasks Difficulty getting started on tasks (completing homework, doing chores, classroom assignments) Procrastinating is often a major problem, particularly with tasks not intrinsically interesting. Executive Functions Work Together in Various Combinations (Thomas Brown, Ph.D.) Cluster 1, cont.
Difficulty attending to what is most important to attend to. Report recurrent failure to notice critical details (putting name at top of paper, noticing (+) versus (-) in a math quiz. Difficulty figuring out how long a project will take or prioritizing and putting items ahead of others. Executive Functions Work Together in Various Combinations (Thomas Brown, Ph.D.) Cluster 2: Focusing, Sustaining, and Shifting Attention to Tasks Difficulty sustaining attention long enough on a task to complete it.
Difficulty with selective attention (listening on the telephone or the words printed on a page). Easily drawn away from a project by distractions. Executive Functions Work Together in Various Combinations (Thomas Brown, Ph.D.) Cluster 2, cont. Difficulty ignoring a myriad of thoughts, background noises, or room distractions.
Unable to stop focusing on one thing so they can redirect their attention to what is important. Executive Functions Work Together in Various Combinations (Thomas Brown, Ph.D.) Cluster 3: Regulating Alertness, Sustaining Effort, and Processing Speed Many children with ADHD complain they can hardly keep their eyes open when they have to sit still and be quiet (especially pronounced when classroom teacher uses a lecture format to present information). Affected children often are tired because of difficulty in getting a good nigh sleep.
Executive Functions Work Together in Various Combinations (Thomas Brown, Ph.D.) Cluster 3, cont. Difficulty completing certain school tasks because of slow processing speed (particularly noticed in writing tasks) Processing speed can be both too slow and too fast. When too fast, they often perform poorly because of carelessness and not attending to details. Executive Functions Work Together in Various Combinations (Thomas Brown, Ph.D.) Cluster 4: Managing Frustration and Modulating Emotion
Affected children have a very low threshold for frustration and chronic difficulty in regulating subjective emotional experiences and expression. Disproportionate emotional reaction to frustration, short fuse, and low threshold for irritability. Executive Functions Work Together in Various Combinations (Thomas Brown, Ph.D.) Cluster 4, cont. Emotions are often described as flooding their mind and leaving little room for any other thought. Can
be overly sensitive and react strongly to even minor slights or criticism. Chronic problems in managing frustration and other emotions. Executive Functions Work Together in Various Combinations (Thomas Brown, Ph.D.) Cluster 5: Utilizing Working Memory and Accessing Recall ADHD children seem to have chronic difficulties with memory. Impairment is generally not in long term memory, but in working-memory: holding one bit of information active while working with another. Remembering a telephone number you just heard so you can call the number.
Communication is hard between individuals when working memory is impaired. It can interfere both in expressive as well as receptive aspects of communication. Executive Functions Work Together in Various Combinations (Thomas Brown, Ph.D.) Cluster 5, cont. ADHD individuals often complain that they have difficulty retrieving information from long-term memory that they need to do a task. Proper functioning of working memory is an important component in mastering many school academic core areas:
reading, math, and written expression. Executive Functions Work Together in Various Combinations (Thomas Brown, Ph.D.) Cluster 6: Monitoring and Self-Regulating Action ADHD children and adults tend to act without much forethought, can be restless and hyperactive, and find it very difficult to slow down and control their actions. Brown notes that in addition to having difficulty holding back, ADHD children also can have difficulty getting started. Some children with ADHD can be excessively focused on how others
are reacting and are excessively self-conscious (Brown, 2007). Executive Functions Work Together in Various Combinations (Thomas Brown, Ph.D.) Cluster 6, cont. Social situations are often among the most challenging for children with ADHD. They often do not measure or assess the expectations or perceptions of others in order to behave appropriately. Their decisions and actions often seem random and/or a series of guesses, rather than thought out responses. They often get in trouble because they do not gauge the emotions or intentions of others.
CLOSING THOUGHTS ON EXECUTIVE FUNCTION Executive functions are very important in accomplishing many daily task both at school and in the home. Educational and positive peer relationships both depend to a large degree on proper function of the executive function. An important contribution to academic and social/emotional adjustment in an ADHD child depends to a large degree on providing academic accommodations and behavioral interventions to minimize core ADHD symptoms.
Even though EF is very important in academic and social/emotional development, important is not exclusive. There may be other factors that may be impacting on an affected childs educational performance. CLOSING THOUGHTS We want to close with a thought from Melvin Levine: The more we involve ourselves with disappointing children, the more we understand the risks they must take during childhood . . . Their lives bear the scars of unjust accusation, chronic feelings of inadequacy, and shamelessly untapped talent. Understanding developmental variation, characterizing it without oversimplifying it, and intervening vigorously on behalf of developing humans experiencing inordinate failure these are urgent needs. (Levine, 1993).
References American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.). Washington, DC: Author. Anastopoulos, A. D., & Shelton, T.L. (2001). Assessing Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum. Asma, J. Sadiq, M.D.Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Integrative Approaches, Psychiatric Annuals. 37:9/September
2007, 630-638. Batshaw, M. (2002). Children with Disabilities. Baltimore: Brookes. References cont. Bloomquist, M.L. (1996). Skills Training for Children with Behavior Disorders: A Parent and Therapist Handbook. New York: Guilford Press. Brown, T. E. Executive Functions: Describing Six Aspects of a Complex Syndrome, Attention, February 2008, 12-17.
Bukstein, O. G. (2006). Current Opinions and New Developments in the Pharmacology Treatment of ADHD. Remedica, 1 (1), 8-15. Denckla, M.B. (2007). Chapter 1, Executive Function: Binding Together the Definitions of Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder and Learning Disabilities, Referenced in Executive Function in Education: From Theory to Practice, Ed. by Lynn Meltzer, 2007, New York, The Guilford Press. References cont.
Goldstein, S. & Goldstein, M. (1998). Managing attention deficit hyperactivity disorders in children: A guide for practioners (2nd. ed.). New York: John Wiley and Sons. Hoagwood, K., Jensen, P.S., Feil, M., Benedetto, V., & Bhatara, V.S. (2000, October). Medication Management of Stimulants in Pediatric Practice Settings: A National Perspective. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 2, 322331. Levine, M. (1993). Developmental Variation and Learning Disorders. Cambridge, MA: Educators Publishing Service. Lougy, R., DeRuvo, S., & Rosenthal, D. (2007). Teaching Young Children with ADHD: Successful References cont.
Meltzer, L., Krishnan, K., (2007). Chapter 5: Executive Function Difficulties and Learning Disabilities: Understandings and Misunderstandings. Referenced in Meltzer, L., (2007). Executive function in education: from theory to practice, Ed. by Lynn Meltzer, 2007. New York, The Guilford Press. Robin, A. L., (1998). ADHD in Adolescents: Diagnosis and Treatment. New York. Guilford Press. Teeter, P.A. (1998). Interventions for ADHD: Treatment in Developmental Context. New York: Guilford Press, 110-149, 201-238.
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