Psych 125 Human Development Christopher Gade Office: 1031-G
Psych 125 Human Development Christopher Gade Office: 1031-G Office hours: Tu 12-1:30 and by apt. Email: [email protected] Class: T 1:30-4:20 Room 2210 Paper Time Lets turn in your second papers Cumulative grades will be posted after the exam next week
Questions to Debate Are humans the only species that communicate in a way that we would identify as language? If not, what species do communicate through language and how do they do it? If so, what is it about animal communication that doesnt qualify it as language? Are we naturally inclined to develop a specific language (e.g. are some people programmed to speak Spanish)? Are we naturally inclined to develop some form
of communication that reflects language? Defining Todays Topic Language a form of communication, whether spoken, written, or signed that is based on a system of symbols Types of language Oral Sign Written Note: written language is HUGE because we dont even have to be there in
order to communicate through this medium The Benefits Of Language Lets list of some of the benefits of language An overview: Allows for effective communication of ideas Time saving Topic specific Aids in exchange of information Unshared experiences Different perspectives
Generational information Current ideas and thoughts Future plans Infinite generativity the ability to produce an endless number of messages The Rules of Spoken Language Despite there being a number of different spoken languages, each has a collection of simple rules that must be learned in order to use the language correctly
Phonology the basic sounds that are used in a language Phoneme the basic unit of sound in a language Note: each language has their own phonemes, some of these overlap between languages, others do not (ex. the rolled r in Spanish, and the th and L in English) Lets try to identify the phonemes Just before I went home, I remembered that I had to call Suzie. Other Rules of Spoken Language Morphology the units of meaning involved in word formation Examples: run = 1 unit, runner = 2 units, run + er (er =
one who) Note: morphology can be of non-words (er), and they can change over time (ex. Photogate) Syntax the way words are combined to form acceptable phrases and sentences Syntax often helps us determine order and meaning Bob went to Toms house for a drink A Tom went to drink for Bobs house Syntax changes dramatically with each language English = The cat, the cats, the mouse, the mice French = Le chat, Les chats
Some Final Rules of Spoken Language Semantics the meaning of a word Note: many words can have multiple semantics The man hit the bat with a bat. I can can my own vegetables. Note: sentences can have proper syntax, but inappropriate semantics The grass watched the orange ear run the red shoe Pragmatics the appropriate use of words based on the situation
Give me that versus can I borrow that Vous-etez versus est-ce que in France Looking into Development and Language By Reviewing a Previous Question Are we naturally inclined to develop some form of communication that reflects language? The Wild Boy of Aveyron example (1799, France) Genie (1970, Los Angeles) If this shows that language is not innate, which it might not show, how do we perfect our
use of language and learn to follow the rules of language In the next section In the next portion of class well look at development and language by examining: Milestones of language development that occur throughout life Challenges in language that occur during different stages in development Changes in language trends that occur during the lifespan
The Infant Development Milestones Regardless of the spoken language, most infants, when not exposed to extremely atypical situations, experience the same milestones in language development Early vocalizations Crying (at birth) to display displeasure Cooing (2-4 months) to express joy or pleasure Babbling (6 months 1 year) producing strings of consonants Maybe to practice using language Other Early Milestones
Recognition of language sounds (birth) Experiments on phoneme changes and responses Citizens of the word findings (up to 6 months) Note on how difficult it is to recognize these specifics Listening for pauses tasks http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=weR8hK2u3Q4 Gesturing (8-12 months) Gaze following (11 months) The Big First Milestone: The First Word Usually occurs between 10 and 15 months of age
Is realistically merely a small step in the language process (sounds, gestures, and recognition of up to 50 sounds have already been accomplished) Spoken vocabulary words that a child uses Receptive vocabulary words that a child recognizes There is a considerable gap between the first words and the vocabulary spurt that eventually occurs Language Development Into Childhood
At 18 to 24 months, infants begin using two-word utterances These utterances quickly turn into three, four, five, and beyond word utterances (years 2-3) These masteries involve the childs ability to recognize the phonemes and semantics of their language Note: the more languages a child is exposed to, the more phonemes and semantics that child needs to learn. This often slows down this developmental process. The Amazing Language Abilities of Children
Word mastery From about 1 years to 6 years of age, children are learning approximately 1 word per waking hour (10-14 words a day) Morphology learning Children are constantly presented with challenges to learn the appropriate endings and combinations of sounds that we use with words I ate an apple I ate a cookie I pet the cats Pet the cats I ran the race Run the race I saw the goose I saw the geese I saw the cow I saw the cows
A Note on Language Development Our surrounding environment, in particular our socio-economic status, has a huge impact our vocabulary development Late Childhood Language Development By about 5 to 6 years, children begin to develop pragmatic speech skills Their syntax skills also increase dramatically Reading skills also begin to develop at this age, this indicates the beginning of a third way to communicate
Recognition of symbols Phonics approach - Association of symbols with sounds Whole-language approach - Recognition of combinations of symbols that make specific sounds The Development of Writing Skills Much like spoken language development versus recognition of language development writing skills develop much slower than reading skills Fine motor skill causes Recognition of the appropriate symbols versus merely identifying symbols Note: development of good writing
skills extends beyond childhood, it also requires a lot of effort Perfecting syntax Organizing ideas Creating coherence Later Language Development Adolescence Marked by increases in vocabulary and use of the vocabulary Pragmatic skills are increase The ability to play with language also develops Satire skills (sarcasm, wit, and derision)
Dialect skills (learning the lingo) Adulthood Vocabulary continues to increase in adulthood, but at a much slower rate Language skills vary dramatically based on education and experience Language tendencies also seem to become very set after we reach adulthood Aging and Language Though our vocabulary seems to always be increasing with age, our ability to retrieve words appears to
decline as we get into our later years (60+) Memory related Tip of the tongue phenomenon Our ability to follow language (conversation) also appears to slow with age Hearing related (remember the curve) Reaction time related Note: any physical ailments related to aging (e.g. Alzheimers) can have a significant impact on the language skills of the elderly
Closing Class By Reviewing a Question Are humans the only species that communicate in a way that we would identify as language? Answer: Probably not, but were exceptionally good at it compared to other species Why? Brain specificity Brocas and Wernickes areas Cognitive tendencies (joint attention skills) Natural teaching skills Scaffolding
Baby tone Thats It This marks the end of the material for this section. Make sure that youve read every chapter associated with this section by next week. Make sure that youve gone over each classes slides by then as well. Youll need a #2 pencil and a scantron sheet for this exam, just like the last time.
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