(Chemical Equilibrium) 1 2. 3. 1. 7.1 CuSO4

(Chemical Equilibrium) 1 2. 3.  1.  7.1  CuSO4

(Chemical Equilibrium) 1 2. 3.

1. 7.1 CuSO4 HCl 1. 2. 3 HCl CuSO4

4 1. HCl CuSO4 Cl- HCl H2O [Cu(HCu(H2O)4]2+ [Cu(HCuCl4]2- Cu2+(aq) [Cu(HCuCl4]2- H2O Cl2. [Cu(HCu(H2O)4]2+ HCl

[Cu(HCuCl4]2- H2O [Cu(HCu(H2O)4]2+ [Cu(HCu(H2O)4]2+ HCl 5 :[Cu(HCu(H2O)4]2+(aq) +4Cl-(aq) [Cu(HCuCl4]2-(aq)+4H2O(l) (Forward reaction)

:[Cu(HCuCl4]2- (aq) +4H2O(l) [Cu(HCu(H2O)4]2+(aq)+4Cl-(aq) (Backward reaction) : [Cu(HCu(H2O)4]2+(aq) +4Cl-(aq) [Cu(HCuCl4]2-(aq)+4H2O(l) (Reversible reaction)

6 (reversible) 7

3 1) 2) 3) 8 1) KNO3(s) K+(aq)+NO3-(aq) 9 2)

10 3) [Co(H2O)6]2+ +4Cl- [CoCl4]2- + 6H2O

11 7.1 1. (Reversible reaction ) 2. 12

13

1. 2. 3. 4. ( ) 14

5. 6. 7. 15

N2O4(g) () NO2(g) 2 () 1. N2O4 (g) 2NO2 (g) 2.

2NO2 (g) N2O4 (g) forward Rxn reverse Rxn 16 N2O4(g) 2NO2(g) 17 7.2 (III) (Fe3+)

(II) (Fe2+) (I2) 1. Fe3+ Fe2+ I2 2. Fe3+ Fe2+ I2 18 NH4SCN

K3[Cu(HFe(CN)6 ] Fe(NO3)3 (NH4)2Fe(SO 4)2 I2 19

NH4SCN K3[Cu(HFe(CN)6 ] Fe(NO3)3

(NH4)2Fe(SO 4)2

20 Fe3+ + SCN[Cu(HFeSCN]2+ NH4SCN Fe3+ 1.

2. Fe2+ + [Cu(HFe(CN)6]3- + K+ KFe[Cu(HFe(CN)6](s) Fe3+ + [Cu(HFe(CN)6]3- + K+ Fe[Cu(HFe(CN)6](aq) K3[Cu(HFe(CN)6] Fe2+ 3. I2 ( ) 21 7.3

Fe2+ Fe3+ 1. Fe2+ Fe3+ 2. 22 1. 1 2. 3.

6 5 1. (III) (Fe(NO3)3) 0.05 M 2. (II) [(NH4)2Fe(SO4)2] 0.05 M 3. (NH4SCN) 0.5 M 4. (III) (K3Fe(CN)6) 0.5 M 1

1 2 3 4 Fe(NO3)3+ KI Fe(NO3)3+ KI+K3Fe(CN)6 Fe(NO3)3+ KI+

Fe(NO3)3+ KI+NH4SCN 25 1 1 2 3 4

Fe(NO3)3+ KI Fe(NO3)3+ KI+K3Fe(CN)6 Fe(NO3)3+ KI+ Fe(NO3)3+ KI+NH4SCN

26 2 I2 (NH4)2Fe(SO4)2 NH4SCN (NH4)2Fe(SO4)2 I2

27 2 I2 (NH4)2Fe(SO4)2 ( I2

) NH4SCN (NH4)2Fe(SO4)2 I2 28 1 Fe(NO3)3 KI Fe(NO3)3 KI K3Fe(CN)6 Fe2+

I2 Fe(NO3)3 KI Fe2+ I2 2Fe3+(aq) + 2I-(aq) 2Fe2+(aq) + I2(aq) Fe3+ I- KI 0.05 mol/dm3 10 Fe(NO3)3 0.05 mol/dm3 10 29 KI 10 Fe(NO3)3 5 KI Fe3+ NH4SCN

Fe3+ 30 2 (NH4)2Fe(SO4)2 NH4+ Fe2+ SO 42- I2 NH4SCN Fe3+ Fe2+ I2 Fe3+ I- 2Fe2+(aq) + I2(aq) 2Fe3+(aq) + 2I-(aq)

31 7.2 ( Equilibrium state ) 32 1.

2. 3. 4. 5. 33 (dynamic Equilibrium) 2

1. (Homogeneous Chemical Equilibrium) 34 1. A2(g) + 2B2(g) 2AB2(g) () 2. 1

1. [Cu(Hx] < [y]] < [Cu(Hy] 2. t1 () 2. 2 1. [Cu(Hx] < [y]] > [Cu(Hy] 2.

t2 () 2. 3 1. [Cu(Hx] < [y]] = [Cu(Hy] 2. t3 7.3

7.3.1

aA + bB cC + dD ( K ) N2O4 (g) K= [NO2]2 [N2O4] 2NO2 (g) = 4.63 x 10-3 aA + bB K=

[C]c[D]d cC + dD Law of Mass Action [A]a[B]b K>1 K<1 Favor products

Favor reactants 41 (K) 1. K 2. K 3. K 4. K

42 K K Rate 6. K 5. 43 PCl (g) PCl (g) + Cl (g)

5 3 2 PCl 3 Cl 2 K PCl5 H2(g) + I2(g) 2HI(g) 2 HI

K H 2 I 2 44 CaO s CO2 g CaCO3 s K CO2

aq H aq OH H 2O l K H OH H 2O 45

Pb2+ (aq) +Zn (s) Pb (s) + Zn2+ (aq) 2 [Pb] [Zn = + KC = 2+ [Zn ] ] 2 [Pb2+] [Pb KC

+ [Zn] ] ( 1) 46 7.3.2 1. K K 1

K1 K2 2NO (g) + O2 (g) 2NO2 (g) K1 = [NO ] 2 2NO2 (g)2 2 [NO] [NO]

(g) + O2 (g) K2 = 2[O ] [O2]2 [NO2 2NO K2 = 1 K 1 48 2. K

K K 3 K12 K H2 (g) + I2 (g) 2HI (g) 2 HI K1

H 2 I 2 2H2 (g) + 2I2 (g) 4 HI K2 H 2 2 I2 2 4HI (g) K2 = K12 50 3. K1 K 2 K

K = K 2NO 1 2 (g) N2O4 (g) N2O4 (g) + O2 (g) 2NO2 (g) + O2 (g) 2

K1 2NO3 (g) K2 2NO3 (g) K = K1 K2 52 4. K K 1 2

K 4 K1 2 K1 K H2 (g) + I2 (g) 2HI (g) 2 HI K1 H 2 I 2 1/2H2 (g) + 1/2I2 (g)

HI K2 H 2 1/ 2 I 2 1/ 2 HI (g) K2 = K1 54 1. 7.3.3 2. 3. 4.

5. K 55 1 A s 2B g C g 2D g 2 dm3 A 4 mol B 4 mol C 2 mol D 6 mol

56 2 K D 2 B C 4 B 2mol / dm 3 2 6 D 3mol / dm 3

2 2 C 1mol / dm 3 2 K 3mol 2mol / dm / dm 3 2 3 2

1mol / dm 3 2 . 25 dm 3 / mol = 2

57 2 PCl5 (g) PCl3 (g) + Cl2 (g) (M) 3 0 (M) xx x+x +x3-x K = [PCl3] [Cl2] (M) =

0 x [PCl (x)(x) 5] (3-x) 58 3 H2 (g) + I2 (g) 2 HI (g) (M) 0.02

(M) -x 0.02 0 xx (M) 0.02-x +2x 2 0.02-x 2x [HI] K = =

[H2][I2] 2 (2x) (0.02-x) 59 4 HI 1 2HI H2(g) + I2(g) HI 20% 60

HI 1 20 1 0.2 10020% g 2HI ( gHI ) H g I= 2 1 2

0 0 -0.2 +0.1 +0.1 H 2 I 2 1-0.2 K 2 0.1 HI 0.1 0.1 0.1

=1.56 X 2 1 0.2 61 A 5 (s) + 2B (g) + 2C 5 (g) 4D (g) A 2 B 2 C 2 D 3 4

[D] KC = 2 [B] [C ]2B 2 [Cu(HB] = 2/5 = 0.4 molL-1 C 2 [Cu(HC] = 2/5 = 0.4 molL-1 62 [D]4 KC = 2 [B] [C

2 ] (0.6)4 = (0.4)2 (0.4)2 = 5.1 63 CO(g) + H2O(g) 6 1007 C CO2 = 63.1

H2 = 21.1 CO = 84.2 H2O = 31.6 ( Kp) 1007 C 64 65 7 NO2(g) + SO2(g) SO3(g) + NO(g) SO2 0.4

mol/dm3 NO2 0.6 mol/dm3 SO2 0.1 mol/dm3 NO2(g) + SO2(g) 0.4 0 -x] < [y] +x] < [y] 0.6 -x] < [y] +x] < [y]

0.3 0.6-0.3 SO3(g) + NO(g) 0 66 [ SO 3][ NO 2] K [ NO 2 ][ SO 2 ]

0.3 0.3 (0.3)(0.1) = 3 67 CaCO3 (s) CaO (s) + CO2 (g) PCO 2 = Kp PCO 2

CaCO3 CaO 68 7.4 1. 2.

69 1 Fe(NO3)3+NH4SCN 2 Fe(NO3)3+NH4SCN+ Fe(NO3)3

3 Fe(NO3)3+NH4SCN+ NH4SCN 4 Fe(NO ) +NH SCN+ 70

l 1 Fe(NO3)3+NH4SCN 2

Fe(NO3)3+NH4SCN+ Fe(NO3)3 3 Fe(NO3)3+NH4SCN+ 71

1. Fe3+ Fe(NO3)3 SCN- [Cu(HFeSCN]2+ 2. Fe3+ Fe3+ [Cu(HFeSCN]2+ 3. SCN- SCN- [Cu(HFeSCN]2+ 4. Na2HPO4 HPO4 2-

Fe3+ FePO4 HPO42 Fe3+ [Cu(HFeSCN]2+ Fe3+ SCN- 73 7.5 1. NO2 2.

3. 4. 5. 1 2

() 3 1 2 1 2

3 1 NO2 N2O4 NO2 N2O4 2NO2(g) N2O4

() 2 NO2 NO2 NO2 N2O4 NO2

() 3 1. NO2 N2O4 2. NO2 () 3. NO2 NO2

NO2 N2O4 N2O4 2NO2(g) N2O4(g) 7.4 1. 2. 3.

82 1. H 2 g I 2 g 2HI

H2, I2 83 A A(aq) + B(aq) C (aq) + D (aq) A C C 84 2.

N2 + 3H2 2NH3 85 H2 (g) + I2 (g) 2HI (g)

N2 (g) + O 2NO (g) 2 (g) OK(g) 2N 2N2 (g) + O2 (g) 2 86 ( V)

N2O4 (g) 2NO (g) ( V) N2O4 (g) 2NO (g) 87 3.

1. H2(g) + I2(g) 2HI(g) H = -9.4 KJ 2. H2(g) + I2(g) 2HI(g) + 9.4 KJ N2O4(g) 2NO2(g) H = +57.2 KJ 88 1.

K K 2. 89 Energy Exothermic reaction T

2 ( T product K 1 T2 T1 product ) K 90 Endothermic reaction (

T1 product ) K T2 T1 product K Ene rgy T2 91

-----------> 92

CO2 g NO g CO g NO 2 g 93 ( N 2 g 3H 2 g NH 3 g 92 kJ

- N2 H2 - - 94 (SO3 2SO 2 g O 2 g SO g ; 2 3

C s 1 . 9kJ C s 95 7.6 96

97 98 99

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