Beam Diagnostics Lecture 1 Ulrich Raich CERN BE

Beam Diagnostics Lecture 1 Ulrich Raich CERN BE

Beam Diagnostics Lecture 1 Ulrich Raich CERN BE - BI (Beam Instrumentation) Overview First hour: Introduction Overview of measurement instruments Faraday Cup Beam Current Transformer Beam Position Monitor Fluorescence screens Profile Detectors SEMGrids Wire Scanners Beam Loss Monitors Second hour Some depicted examples of beam parameter measurements U. Raich CERN BE/BI CAS Introduction to Accelerator Physics Granada 2012 2

Introduction An accelerator can never be better than the instruments measuring its performance! U. Raich CERN BE/BI CAS Introduction to Accelerator Physics Granada 2012 3 Different uses of beam diagnostics Regular crude checks of accelerator performance Beam Intensity Radiation levels Standard regular measurements Emittance measurement Trajectories Tune Sophisticated measurements e.g. during machine development sessions May require offline evaluation May be less comfortable U. Raich CERN BE/BI CAS Introduction to Accelerator Physics

Granada 2012 4 Diagnostic devices and quantity measured Instrument Physical Effect Measured Quantity Effect on beam Faraday Cup Charge collection Intensity Destructive Current Transformer Magnetic field

Intensity Non destructive Wall current monitor Image Current Intensity Longitudinal beam shape Non destructive Pick-up Electric/magnetic field Position Non destructive Secondary emission monitor Secondary electron

emission Transverse size/shape, emittance Disturbing, can be destructive at low energies Wire Scanner Secondary particle creation Transverse size/shape Slightly disturbing Scintillator screen Atomic excitation with light emission Transverse size/shape (position) Destructive

Residual Gas monitor Ionization Transverse size/shape Non destructive U. Raich CERN BE/BI Introduction to Accelerator Physics CAS Granada 2012 5 A beam parameter measurement U. Raich CERN BE/BI Introduction to Accelerator Physics CAS Granada 2012

6 Required Competence in a beam diagnostics group Some beam physics in order to understand the beam parameters to be measured and to distinguish beam effects from sensor effects Detector physics to understand the interaction of the beam with the sensor Mechanics Analogue signal treatment Low noise amplifiers High frequency analogue electronics Digital signal processing Digital electronics for data readout Front-end and Application Software U. Raich CERN BE/BI CAS Introduction to Accelerator Physics Granada 2012 7 Layout of a Faraday Cup Electrode: 1 mm stainless steel

Only low energy particles can be measured Very low intensities (down to 1 pA) can be measured Creation of secondary electrons of low energy (below 20 eV) Repelling electrode with some 100 V polarisation voltage pushes secondary electrons back onto the electrode U. Raich CERN BE/BI CAS Introduction to Accelerator Physics Granada 2012 8 Faraday Cup U. Raich CERN BE/BI Introduction to Accelerator Physics CAS Granada 2012

9 Electro-static Field in Faraday Cup -92V -62V -17V -40V -31.5V -9V -47V -24.5V Since the electrons have energies of less than 20 eV some 100V repelling voltage is sufficient Collecteur

-2.3V In order to keep secondary electrons within the cup a repelling voltage is applied to the polarization electrode -100V Electrode de polarisation U. Raich CERN BE/BI Introduction to Accelerator Physics CAS Granada 2012 10 Energy of secondary emission electrons With increasing repelling voltage the electrons do not escape the Faraday Cup any more and the

current measured stays stable. At 40V and above no decrease in the Cup current is observed any more I(A) 90keV 50keV 30keV Itotal vs. eV 1.6 1.4 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0.1 1 10 100

1000 V U. Raich CERN BE/BI CAS Introduction to Accelerator Physics Granada 2012 11 Faraday Cup with water cooling For higher intensities water cooling may be needed U. Raich CERN BE/BI CAS Introduction to Accelerator Physics Granada 2012 12 Current Transformers Magnetic field

Fields are very low ri Capture magnetic field lines with cores of high relative permeability ro (CoFe based amorphous alloy Vitrovac: r= 105) Beam current I beam qeN qeN c t l U. Raich CERN BE/BI CAS Introduction to Accelerator Physics

2 r 0 r 0 L lN ln 2 r i Granada 2012 13 TheThe ideal ACtransformer transformer The active AC transformer RF t droop

Ls RLL A R dI beam U (U t) ILbeam (t ) e dt N CSS R Inductance L of the winding rise LsCs Transformer output signal Beam signal

LL L droop droop R f RL R R RLL A U. Raich CERN BE/BI CAS Introduction to Accelerator Physics Granada 2012 14 Principle of a fast current transformer 500MHz Bandwidth Low droop (< 0.2%/s) Image Current Ceramic Gap BEAM

80nm Ti Coating 20W to improve impedance Calibration winding Diagram by H. Jakob U. Raich CERN BE/BI CAS Introduction to Accelerator Physics Granada 2012 15 Fast current transformers for the LHC U. Raich CERN BE/BI CAS Introduction to Accelerator Physics Granada 2012 16 Magnetic shielding Shield should extend along the vacuum chamber length > diameter of opening Shield should be symmetrical to the beam axis

Air gaps must be avoided especially along the beam axis Shield should have highest possible but should not saturate monitor Permalloy (3) Soft iron (1) Transformer steel (2) U. Raich CERN BE/BI CAS Introduction to Accelerator Physics Granada 2012 17 Calibration of AC current transformers The transformer is calibrated with a very precise current source The calibration signal is injected into a separate calibration winding A calibration procedure executed before the running period A calibration pulse before the beam pulse

measured with the beam signal U. Raich CERN BE/BI CAS Introduction to Accelerator Physics Granada 2012 18 Display of transformer readings First result from LHC FBCT Measurement of bunch intensity Diminishing intensity due to debunching Beam losses will trigger machine protection system U. Raich CERN BE/BI CAS Introduction to Accelerator Physics Granada 2012 20

The DC current transformer AC current transformer can be extended to very long droop times but not to DC Measuring DC currents is needed in storage rings Must provide a modulation frequency Takes advantage of non/linear magnetisation curve B H U. Raich CERN BE/BI CAS Introduction to Accelerator Physics Granada 2012 21 Principle of DCCT Va Va-Vb Synchronous detector Vb

modulator Power supply beam R V=RIbeam Compensation current Ifeedback=-Ibeam U. Raich CERN BE/BI CAS Introduction to Accelerator Physics Granada 2012 22 Modulation of a DCCT without beam dB U NA dt B B=f(t)

H Udt B B NA 0 Modulation current has only odd harmonic frequencies since the signal is symmetric 1 U. Raich CERN BE/BI CAS Introduction to Accelerator Physics 2 3 4 5

Granada 2012 23 Modulation of a DCCT with beam B=f(t) B H Sum signal becomes non-zero Even harmonics appear 1 U. Raich CERN BE/BI CAS Introduction to Accelerator Physics 2 3 4 5 Granada 2012 24

Modulation current difference signal with beam Difference signal has 2m m typically 200 Hz 10 kHz Use low pass filter with c<< m Provide a 3rd core, normal AC transformer to extend to higher frequencies U. Raich CERN BE/BI CAS Introduction to Accelerator Physics Granada 2012 25 Photo of DCCT internals U. Raich CERN BE/BI CAS Introduction to Accelerator Physics Granada 2012 26

Results from DCCT Injections into LHC Beam 2 DCCT sees first circulating beam U. Raich CERN BE/BI CAS Introduction to Accelerator Physics Granada 2012 27 Measuring Beam Position The Principle Slide by R. Jones - +- - + - +- + - - + - + - +- - + - +- + - -+ - + - +- - + - +- + -+ + + + + + + +

+ + - + - + - + - +- + - + - + - + - +- + - + - + - + - + - +- + - + - U. Raich CERN BE/BI CAS Introduction to Accelerator Physics Granada 2012 28 Wall Current Monitor The Principle V - +- - + - +- + - - + -+ + ++ - - + + + - + - +- - + U. Raich CERN BE/BI CAS Introduction to Accelerator Physics Ceramic Insert Granada 2012

-+ - + - +- - + - +- + - + - + - + +- + - - + - + - + 29 Electrostatic Monitor The Principle V - +- - + - +- + - - + -+ + ++ - - + + + - + - +- - + U. Raich CERN BE/BI CAS Introduction to Accelerator Physics - +-- +-+ -- -- + ---+-+ - ++ - + - - + +--+ - Granada 2012 -+ - + - +- - + - +- + - + - + - + +- + - - + - + - +

31 Position measurements w U d U d If the beam is much smaller than w, all field lines are captured and U is a linear function with replacement else: Linear cut (projection to measurement plane must be linear) U. Raich CERN BE/BI CAS Introduction to Accelerator Physics Granada 2012 33 Shoebox pick-up UR

UL Linear cut through a shoebox U. Raich CERN BE/BI CAS Introduction to Accelerator Physics UL - UR x UL UR Granada 2012 34 Doubly cut shoebox Can measure horizontal and vertical position at once Has 4 electrodes b a c U. Raich CERN BE/BI

CAS Introduction to Accelerator Physics d Granada 2012 35 Simulatenous horizontal and vertical measurement vertical horizontal b a c a c d (U a U c ) (U b U d ) X

U U. Raich CERN BE/BI CAS Introduction to Accelerator Physics b Y d (U a U b ) (U c U d ) U Granada 2012 36 Interaction of particles with matter Coulomb interaction Average force in s-direction=0 Average force in transverse direction <> 0 Mostly large impact parameter => low energy of ejected electron

Electron mostly ejected transversely to the particle motion U. Raich CERN BE/BI CAS Introduction to Accelerator Physics Beam particle Granada 2012 s b F Atomic shell electron 37 Bethe Bloch formula 2 2 2 2 Z 2 m c Z

dE p 2 2 e T 4N A re me c 2 [ln 2] dx AT I with the following constants: NA: Avogadros number me and re: electron rest mass and classical electron radius c: speed of light the following target material properties: : material density AT and ZT: the atomic mass and nuclear charge

and the particle properties: Zp: particle charge 1 2 : the particles velocity and Dependance on Z p2 U. Raich CERN BE/BI CAS Introduction to Accelerator Physics Granada 2012 38 High energy loss a low energies dE MeV [ ] 2 dx g / cm 50 20 10 gas

5 solid 2 Ekin[GeV] 1 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 1000 Heavy ions at low energy are stopped within a few micro-meters All energy is deposited in a very small volume U. Raich CERN BE/BI CAS Introduction to Accelerator Physics Granada 2012

39 Scintillating Screens Method already applied in cosmic ray experiments Very simple Very convincing Needed: Scintillating Material TV camera In/out mechanism Problems: Radiation resistance of TV camera Heating of screen (absorption of beam energy) Evacuation of electric charges U. Raich CERN BE/BI Introduction to Accelerator Physics CAS Granada 2012 40

Test for resistance against heat-shock cp at 20C k at 100C J/gK W/mK Material g/cm3 Tmax C R at 400 C .cmcm Al2O3 3.9 0.9

30 1600 1012 ZrO2 6 0.4 2 1200 103 BN 2 1.6 35 2400

1014 Better for electrical conductivity (>400C) Better for thermal properties (higher conductivity, higher heat capacity) 50000 30000 Start 90C (30min) 450C (2h30min) 585C (3h15min) 720C (4h) 10000 Light intensity (u.a.) Light intensity (u.a.) 40000 20000

10000 1000 100 Test start +2min +3min +1h30 +3h 10 1 -10 0 10 20 30 Y (mm)

0.1 -10 0 10 20 30 40 Y (mm) U. Raich CERN BE/BI CAS Introduction to Accelerator Physics Granada 2012 41 Degradation of screen Degradation clearly visible However sensitivity stays essentially the same

U. Raich CERN BE/BI CAS Introduction to Accelerator Physics Granada 2012 42 Screen mechanism Screen with graticule U. Raich CERN BE/BI CAS Introduction to Accelerator Physics Granada 2012 43 Results from TV Frame grabber First full turn as seen by the BTV 10/9/2008 Uncaptured beam sweeps

through he dump line U. Raich CERN BE/BI CAS Introduction to Accelerator Physics For further evaluation the video signal is digitized, read-out and treated by program Granada 2012 44 Profile measurements Secondary emission grids (SEMgrids) When the beam passes secondary electrons are ejected from the wires The current flowing back onto the wiress is measured Electrons are taken away by polarization voltage One amplifier/ADC chain channel per wire U. Raich CERN BE/BI

CAS Introduction to Accelerator Physics Granada 2012 45 Profiles from SEMgrids Charge density projected to x or y axis is measured One amplifier/ADC per wire Large dynamic range Resolution is given by wire distance Used only in transfer lines U. Raich CERN BE/BI CAS Introduction to Accelerator Physics Granada 2012 46 Wire Scanners A thin wire is quickly moved across the beam Secondary particle shower is detected outside the vacuum chamber on a scintillator/photo-multiplier assembly

Position and photo-multiplier signal are recorded simultaneously U. Raich CERN BE/BI CAS Introduction to Accelerator Physics Granada 2012 47 Wire scanner profile High speed needed because of heating. Adiabatic damping Current increase due to particle speed increase Wire speeds of up to 20m/s => 200g acceleration U. Raich CERN BE/BI CAS Introduction to Accelerator Physics Granada 2012 48 Stored Beam Energies

(Based on graph from R. Schmidt) Energy stored in the beam [MJ] 1000.00 LHC top energy 100.00 LHC injection (12 SPS batches) 10.00 Factor ~200 ISR SPS fixed target 1.00 HERA

TEVATRON SPS batch to LHC 0.10 LEP2 SNS SPS ppbar RHIC proton 0.01 1 10 100 Momentum [GeV/c] 1000

10000 Quench Levels Units Tevatron RHIC HERA LHC Instant loss (0.01 - 10 ms) [J/cm3] 4.5 10-03 1.8 10-02 2.1 10-03 - 6.6 10-03 8.7 10-04

Steady loss (> 100 s) [W/cm3] 7.5 10-02 7.5 10-02 U. Raich CERN BE/BI CAS Introduction to Accelerator Physics Granada 2012 5.3 10-03 49 Beam power in the LHC shot The Linac beam (160 mA, 200s, 50 MeV, 1Hz) is enough to burn a hole into the vacuum chamber What about the LHC beam: 2808 bunches of 15*1011 particles at 7 TeV? 1 bunch corresponds to a 5 kg bullet at 800 km/h U. Raich CERN BE/BI

CAS Introduction to Accelerator Physics Granada 2012 50 Beam Dammage prim ary collim ator Fermi LabsTevatron has 200 times less beam power than LHC! U. Raich CERN BE/BI CAS Introduction to Accelerator Physics Granada 2012 51 Beam Loss Monitor Types Design criteria: Signal speed and robustness Dynamic range (> 109) limited by leakage current through insulator ceramics (lower) and saturation due to space charge (upper limit). Secondary Emission Monitor Ionization chamber: N2 gas filling at 100 mbar (SEM): Length 10 cm over-pressure Length 50 cm

P < 10-7 bar Sensitive volume 1.5 l ~ 30000 times smaller Ion collection time 85 s gain Both monitors: Parallel electrodes (Al, SEM: Ti) separated by 0.5 cm Low pass filter at the HV input Voltage 1.5 kV U. Raich CERN BE/BI CAS Introduction to Accelerator Physics Granada 2012 52 Quench levels U. Raich CERN BE/BI CAS Introduction to Accelerator Physics Granada 2012 53

Industrial production of chambers Beam loss must be measured all around the ring => 4000 sensors! U. Raich CERN BE/BI CAS Introduction to Accelerator Physics Granada 2012 54 System layout U. Raich CERN BE/BI CAS Introduction to Accelerator Physics Granada 2012 55 Successive running sums U. Raich CERN BE/BI CAS Introduction to Accelerator Physics

Granada 2012 56

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