Residents as Teachers Loyola University Medical Center Stritch
Residents as Teachers Loyola University Medical Center Stritch School of Medicine Graduate Medical Education Session 1 Teaching Skills Teaching Skills Strengthening Your Teaching Toolbox
Intended Learning Outcomes Describe challenges and barriers to effective teaching in the clinical setting Identify opportunities for time efficient teaching Choose appropriate strategies from your teaching toolbox to maximize teaching Key Questions What should I teach?
When should I make time to teach? How do I do itwhat methods can I use efficiently? Challenges to Clinical Teaching What are the challenges to effective and efficient teaching in the clinical setting?
Possible Challenges Having time to teach Conflict between patient care and education Different levels of learners with different needs Knowing what to teach Limited space for teaching Teaching Toolbox Prevention Setting the stage for efficient learning
Intervention Tools that maximize learning Maintenance Ensuring your toolbox is ready for the next learner Prevention Rotation objectives/expectations Orienting the learner Assessing and prioritizing
learning needs Clerkship Where to find student learning objectives? What book do they use? Consider coming to rotation orientation Intervention Daily schedule Guiding presentation
Priming the learner Teachable moments Role modeling Team teaching Observation
Self-directed learning Staffing in the patients presence Beginning of Clinic Session Review daily schedule to identify Learning needs/goals How much experience do you have with patients with X What kinds of patients/conditions are you interested in
seeing Learner questions What clinical areas/skills/conditions do you have questions about? Ways to meet learning needs via patient care themes Selecting Patients Learners dont need to see all patients Consider wave scheduling
Preceptor Schedule Learner Schedule 9:00 See pt X 9:00 Review pt A chart
9:15 See pt Y 9:15 See pt A 9:30
See pt A w/ student 9:30 Present pt A to preceptor 9:45 See pt Z
9:45 Chart pt A 10:0 0 Repeat 10:0
0 Repeat Priming the Learner Briefly preparing learners for patient encounters Tasks: what the learner will do and for how long Attending role: when and how will reconnect Patient: if known, review any pertinent information and/or chief complaint
New patient (differential diagnosis) Return patient (health maintenance or management of chronic illness) Product: clear description of what expected Role Modeling a.k.a. Advanced shadowing Guided opportunity for learner to observe teacher Priming: Expectations of what learner should watch
Emphasis: Conscious demonstration of skills Debriefing: Discuss what happened, questions, identify learning points Observation of Learners: When? Especially useful early in rotation Can be done in brief forays Easiest to schedule at beginning or end of clinic Brief observations over time contributes more to learning than single observation of full encounter
This is key for the LCME visitMake sure learners know you are observing them! Observation of Learners: How? Priming learner Any useful information about patient What the learner and you will do during the encounter Anything in particular they want you to watch for Emphasis: While seeing patient
Orient patient to what is happening Make sure attention stays on learner Debrief after interview Feedback is key What they learned about the patient & their own skills Any concerns or future skills Observation Activity http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=idIzN8XHcKU
Staffing in the Patients Presence Studies show this is as efficient if not more than conference room staffing Provides unique opportunities: Correct and expand missing history Focused PE and clinical reasoning teaching Increased satisfaction for patients Learners like it the more they do it (Petersen, et al., 2008)
Staffing in the Patients Presence Prime learner What learner and you will do in room Discuss any potential patient problems or problematic learner behaviors Emphasis: While in the room Have learner introduce you avoid hijacking the encounter Orient patient and continue to signpost talking about them
Have learner present to you and ask questions Debrief Assessment and plan can occur in or outside the room What they learned about the patient & their own skills Any concerns and future skills Guiding Presentations Set the stage ahead of time Before they present
Aunt Minnie a.k.a. Pattern Recognition Have learner present what they think is going on first then supporting evidence S.N.A.P.P.S. Summarize, Narrow, Analyze, Probe, Plan, Select Teachable Moments Before you begin, consider what your goal is during the interaction with the learner
Clarification of a procedure Explain a diagnosis Develop more differentials Provide understanding about pharmacology Show an easier way to do something Investigate the learners level of knowledge Share some of your experiences Prevent mistakes in the future Teachable Moments Teaching
Demonstration: Part 1 What teaching technique was used? What did the student learn in this situation? The Aha Student presents information and the teacher gives the answer and actions to be taken Student learns that the teacher will provide the answers
No need to think deeper Dump all problem solving on teacher Time efficient but not conducive to student learning Teachable Moments Teaching Demonstration: Part 2 What teaching technique was used?
What did the student learn in this situation? Asking Questions Use open-ended vs. closed ended questions Ask questions that maintain learner involvement Ask questions to help assess the learners educational needs Emphasize questions beyond recall investigating inference and evaluation Low-level: recall, analysis
High-level: comparison, Inference, evaluation Power of silence/ wait time Rowe MB, 1972 Teachable Moments Teaching Demonstration: Part 3 What teaching technique was used? What did the student
learn in this situation? Mini - Lecture Already prepared instruction that is brief Specific focus in mind Assess learner starting point Know ahead of time: Types of patients to be seen Types of diagnoses Pharmacology Health maintenance
Do not need PowerPoint; possible readings Teachable Moments Teaching Demonstration: Part 4 What teaching technique was used? What did the student learn in this situation?
Thinking Out Loud/Problem Solving A method to role model your clinical reasoning Instead of just answering learners questions, talk learners through your thoughts Verbally explain what you are doing and why Allows learner to hear your thought process & be able to ask more in-depth questions Van Someren, et. al, 1994
Teachable Moments Teaching Demonstration: Part 5 What teaching technique was used? What did the student learn in this situation? Microskills or 1 Minute Preceptor 1. Get a commitment
What other information do you think we need? What do you think is going on with this patient? 2. Probe for supporting evidence What were the major findings that led to your diagnosis? What facts in this case do not support your conclusion? 3. Teach general rules
When this happens, do X. When I see a patient this sick, the first thing I think of is hydration. 4. Tell them whats working You didnt immediately jump into solving the patients problem but kept your mind open until they revealed their real agenda for coming in today. 5. Correct mistakes.
Next time this happens, try this. Neher et. al, 1992 Teachable Moments: General Pointers Diagnose the learner What is the level of knowledge and skill? What does the learner need to know? You cannot teach everything in one case Emphasize pearls and clinical reasoning
Brief, simple, focused, recallable Correcting errors may be the key point! Team Teaching You do not have to be the only teacher Professional staff Make arrangements ahead of timeno dumping Pre-select possible learning topics Prime the learner What to ask about
What you want as an outcome Provide feedback to other teachers Self-Directed Learning As a supplement to patient contact to maximize clinical learning Guided by clinical questions from patient interactions Research topic through Evidence Based Clinical Practice resources, chart reviews, etc.
Specific outcome On-line modules Library of materials Audience Participation Are there any additional teaching strategies you have used that are effective and time efficient? Teaching Methods Card Game
Instructions Form small groups FOR THE GROUP, select a set number of cards (not for each person) For each of the following cases, AS A GROUP, select a Teaching Methods card that would most effectively fit the situation See what each group has selected and why Once the card is used, its no longer an option Case #1
This is the third day that you have been with your new learner. She seems to be totally clueless about presenting the case to you. The presentation is disorganized, some information is too detailed-other parts not enough information. You are not sure if this is because of the way the learner is collecting information from the patient or that they just dont know how to present a patient. You wonder what would be the best method to teach this learner. Case #2
Although your learner means well, it seems to take him much longer to interview patients than most of your previous learners. Though you have suggested that he needs to limit the amount of time he spends with each patient, on average it seems to take him 20-30 minutes in each room. You wonder what would be the best method to teach this learner. Case #3 Your clinic today has been all over the place as far
as patient illnesses are concerned. Youve had an ingrown toenail, suspected strep throat, a routine physical, a possible case of depression, and a patient with early signs of Alzheimers. Your learner has been with you for every patient and you feel bad not being able to teach something with all this variety. You wonder what would be the best method to teach this learner. Case #4 As you step out of the patients room, you ask your
learner for her diagnosis. She begins by saying that it could be any of three possible problems. As she identifies each problem, she then proceeds to tell you everything she knows about the problem-what the symptoms are, a little bit of its history, the evidence based medicine research, and the various pharmacological alternatives. While you admire her wealth of knowledge, you cannot take this long in the future. You wonder what would be the best method to teach this learner. Case #5
After each patient, your learner has lots of questions to ask you. He seems very eager to learn all that he can. While you are happy to have such a motivated learner, these questions are beginning to impact your clinic schedule. You wonder what would be the best method to teach this learner. Case #6 A nurse reports to you that while assisting your third year medical student with a pelvic exam and
pap, the patient seemed extremely uncomfortable, both emotionally and with pain. You wonder what would be the best method to teach this learner. Case #7 You have a third year medical student spending the afternoon with you as part of a primary care preceptorship. You have been told that this student should be able to do a basic history and physical but he has never worked in a clinical setting. You wonder what would be the best
method to teach this learner. Key Questions What should I teach? Plan ahead or take advantage of situation occasionally When should I make time to teach? Fits goals of learner Something that excites you How do I do itwhat methods can I use
efficiently? Role modeling, observation, teachable moments Maintenance Reflection Boud et.al, 1985 Self-development Peer coaching/feedback Slater & Simmons, 2001
Staff input Can insert some type of graphic here Revisit Challenges Did we provide several different teaching methods that can be used efficiently & effectively?
Any glaring omissions or fuzzy solutions? Take Home Points Orient and assess learners early to help focus teaching and increase efficiency Increase your variety of teaching tools to assess learners and focus teaching Dont need to teach everything or teach to every case Use other resources (people, self-directed learning) to supplement your teaching
Reflecting on and developing teaching skills increases your effectiveness
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