Skeletal System - Mrs. Jessica Barker

Skeletal System - Mrs. Jessica Barker

M E T S Y S L A T E L E SK

CS: 8 WHAT IS THE SKELETAL SYSTEM? SYSTEM MADE UP OF BONES 206 BONES IN THE ADULT SKELETON FUNCTIONS: 1. FRAMEWORK 2. PROTECTION 3. LEVERS 4. PRODUCTION OF BLOOD CELLS 5. STORAGE

1. FRAMEWORK WHAT WOULD OUR BODY LOOK LIKE WITHOUT BONES? COULD WE WALK? COULD WE MOVE? THE BONES PROVIDE A FRAMEWORK TO SUPPORT THE BODYS MUSCLES, FAT AND SKIN 2. PROTECTION HOW DO BONES OFFER PROTECTION? WHAT EXACTLY NEEDS TO BE PROTECTED? VITAL ORGANS ARE SURROUNDED BY BONE; BRAIN-CRANIUM, HEART AND LUNGS- RIB CAGE,

SPINAL CORD- VERTEBRAL COLUMN, REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS- PELVIS 3. LEVERS COULD WE MOVE OUR BODY WITHOUT BONES? CAN A MUSCLE MOVE IF NOT ATTACHED TO A BONE? MUSCLES ATTACH TO BONES TO HELP PROVIDE MOVEMENT 4. PRODUCTION OF BLOOD CELLS HOW DO OUR BONES PRODUCE BLOOD CELLS???

THE PRODUCTION OF BLOOD CELLS IS CALLED HEMOPOIESIS OR HEMATOPOIESIS (HEM-/HEMAT- = BLOOD). BONES ASSIST IN THE PRODUCTION OF RBC (RED BLOOD CELLS), WBC (WHITE BLOOD CELLS), AND PLT (PLATELETS) 5. STORAGE WHAT DO OUR BONES STORE? MOST OF THE BODYS CALCIUM SUPPLY IS STORED BY THE BONES, ALONG WITH PHOSPHOROUS AND FATS

LONG BONE BONES COME IN ALL SHAPES AND SIZES BONES OF THE ARMS AND LEGS (EXTREMITIES) ARE CALLED LONG BONES PARTS OF A LONG BONE Diaphysis- long part of long bone Epiphysis- each end of long bone (end= epiphysis) Medullary Canal- cavity in diaphysis (med- = middle) (pool) Yellow Marrow- fills medullary canal (pool water) Endosteum- lines med canal to keep yellow marrow intact;

produces some bone growth (pool liner) Red Marrow- found in proximal end of humerus and femur, Vertebrae, ribs, sternum, and cranium; produces RBC, PLT, and some WBC Periosteum- tough membrane which covers the outside of bone RBC= erythrocyte (erythro- = red), WBC= leukocytes (leuko- = white), PLT= thrombocytes (thromb- = clot), cyt = cell, ost- = bone OSTEOPOROSIS OSTEOPOROSIS & OSTEOMYELITIS

BONES BECOME POROUS, SOFT AND BRITTLE, LEADING TO INCREASED FRACTURES CAUSED BY HORMONE DEFICIENCY (SUCH AS ESTROGEN), PROLONGED LACK OF DIETARY CALCIUM, AND SEDENTARY LIFESTYLE INCREASE CALCIUM AND VIT D INTAKE, INCREASE BONE MASS WITH FOSAMAX OR CITRACEL, ESTROGEN REPLACEMENT OSTEOMYELITIS

BONE INFLAMMATION SECONDARY TO PATHOGENIC ORGANISM ABSCESS WITH PUS ACCUMULATION FORM IN THE MEDULLARY CANAL PAIN, SWELLING, FEVER, CHILLS ANTIBIOTICS DIVISIONS OF SKELETAL SYSTEM AXIAL

APPENDICULAR MAIN TRUNK OF BODY COMPOSED OF THE EXTREMITIES SKULL SHOULDER GIRDLE ARM BONES PELVIC GIRDLE LEG BONES

SPINAL COLUMN RIBS BREAST BONE SKULL CRANIAL BONES THE CRANIUM (MADE OF 8 BONES) SURROUNDS AND PROTECTS THE BRAIN 1 FRONTAL 2 PARIETAL 2 TEMPORAL 1 OCCIPITAL

1 ETHMOID 1 SPHENOID FACIAL BONES (14) 1 MANDIBLE (LOWER JAW) 2 MAXILLA (UPPER JAW) 2 ZYGOMATIC (CHEEK) 2 LACRIMAL (INNER ASPECT OF EYE) 5 NASAL 2 PALATINE (ROOF OF MOUTH) FONTANELS AND SUTURES

Fontanels- soft spots allows for enlargement of skull as brain development occurs (closes at around 18 months old) Sutures- areas where the cranial bones have joined together SINUSES AND FORAMINA SINUSES- AIRSPACES IN SKULL THAT PROVIDE RESONANCE OF THE VOICE FORAMINA- OPENING IN BONE TO PROVIDE PASSAGE OF NERVES AND VESSELS VERTEBRAE

The spinal column is composed of 26 vertebrae which protect the spinal cord and support the head and trunk. Intervertebral Disks separate the vertebrae and act as shock absorbers and allow bending and twisting of the vertebral column. Cerv- = neck Thorac- = chest Lumbar= waist Coccyx= tail bone What is a ruptured disk? Why do EMTs and Paramedics hold c-spine? Where is an epidural or lumbar puncture administered?

RIBS (12 PAIR OF RIBS & 12 THORACIC VERTEBRAE) TRUE RIBS FALSE RIBS 7 PAIR 5 PAIR

ATTACH DIRECTLY TO STERNUM 2 OF THE 5 PAIR ARE FLOATING AND ONLY ATTACH TO DORSAL VERTEBRAE 3 PAIR ATTACH TO THE SUPERIOR Ribs=RIB costae Ribs attach to the sternum via costal cartilage to form a cage which protects the heart and lungs STERNUM Sternum (breastbone) has (3) sections:

Manubrium Gladiolus Xyphoid Process During CPR, compressions are given on the sternum PECTORAL GIRDLE & ARM BONES BONES OF THE ARM 1 HUMERUS 1 ULNA (OLECRANON PROCESS) 1 RADIUS (THUMB SIDE) (RADIAL PULSE

SITE) 8 CARPALS 5 METACARPALS 14 PHALANGES (WHY NOT 15??) What is carpal tunnel? What is the landmark to give IM inj in deltoid? PELVIC GIRDLE & LEG BONES rgest tarsal = heel= calcaneous . Soccer players wear tibia guards JOINTS

DIARTHROSIS (SYNOVIAL) = FREELY MOVABLE BALL & SOCKET (SHOULDER & HIP) HINGE (ELBOW & KNEE) AMPHIARTHROSIS = SLIGHTLY MOVABLE (THINK OF AN AMPHIBIAN) (RIBS ATTACHING TO THORACIC VERTEBRAE; PUBIS) SYNARTHROSIS = IMMOVABLE (SUTURES OF THE SKULL) Arthr- = joint

at is inflammation of a joint called? What is Bursitis? ARTHRITIS OSTEOARTHRITIS = OLD AGE RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS = REALLY YOUNG OCCURS AS A RESULT OF AGING JOINT PAIN, STIFFNESS, ACHING, OCCURS IN MOSTLY WOMEN 35-45 YEARS LIMITED ROM

REST, HEAT/COLD APPLICATION, ASA (ASPIRIN), ANTI-INFLAMMATORY (IBUPROFEN), STEROID INJ OLD SCAR TISSUE FORMATION, BONE & MUSCLE ATROPHY, PERMANENT DEFORMITY & IMMOBILITY REST, EXERCISE AS PRESCRIBED, ANTIINFLAMMATORY DRUGS, ASA, STEROIDS, SURGERY, ARTHROPLASTY

FRACTU RES C o Fx= fracture Which fx has a higher risk l Of infection? l e s

Spiral Depressed REDUCTION CLOSED REDUCTION Which reduction has a higher risk of infection? How is a dislocation treated?

OPEN REDUCTION SPRAIN Tx = treatment Tx = RICE RICE= rest, ice, compression, elevation SPINAL CURVATURES TYPES SCOLIOSIS= S-SHAPED; SIDE TO SIDE

KYPHOSIS= HUNCHBACK; THORACIC LORDOSIS= LOWER BACK; LUMBAR; SWAYBACK CAUSE POOR POSTURE, CONGENITAL (@ BIRTH) DEFECT, MALNUTRITION, DEGENERATION OF THE VERTEBRAE TREATMENT THERAPEUTIC EXERCISE, FIRM MATTRESS, BRACE, SURGICAL REPAIR

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