Single-balanced mixer design Design review

Single-balanced mixer design Design review

SINGLE-BALANCED MIXER PROJECT DESIGN REVIEW RIT Senior Project Jared Burdick Held May 3, 2012 Updated May 5, 2012 with Action Items AGENDA Schedule Specifications Block diagram Components used Design decisions / trade-offs AWR model Simulation results Circuit layout Fabrication / assembly Testing Action Items & Notes from Review SCHEDULE Key Milestones Concept Design

selections Model build / simulation Design review Fabricate circuit & mixer assembly Test assembly Evaluate results Write report Demonstration at RIT Completion Date March 23 April 13 April 26 May 3 May 11 May14 May 16 May 21 TBD

SPECIFICATIONS Spec # Function Specification (metric) S1 S2 S3 1 2 7 RF Frequency LO Frequency IF Frequency S4 1,7 S5 S6 1,2,4,5 2,4,5,7

S7 2 Minimum LO Power S8 1 Maximum RF Power S9 1,7 S10 1,2,5,8 RF VSWR S11 2,5,8

LO VSWR Conversion Loss RF/IF Isolation LO/IF Isolation 1dB Compression S12 2,5,6,7,8,10 IF VSWR Unit of Marginal Comments Measure Value GHz 0.8 - 1.2 RF Input frequency range. GHz 1 LO frequency (fixed). MHz DC - 200 IF output frequency range. Diffe rence in power between signal dB 10 entering RF port and output IF port. dB

30 Relative to the RF Input dB 35 Relative to the LO Input Power Minimum LO power level required for dBm 10 all other specs to be met. Maximum RF power level required for dBm -10 all other specs to be met. The input RF power level at which dBm 15 conversion loss increases by 1 dB. VSWR to be measured with LO power at Ratio 2.0:1 10 dBm. Should have same performance as RF Ratio 2.5:1 port VSWR to be measured with LO power at

Ratio 1.5:1 10 dBm. BLOCK DIAGRAM COMPONENT LIST RF splitting (1) Anaren SMD Hybrid Coupler Diodes (2) Avago RF Schottky-barrier series pair (1) LPF (1) Lumped element maximally flat 5 th order RF connectors (3) SMA female jack end-launch printed circuit board mount Printed circuit functions (on RO4003, 32-mil thick, 1oz.

copper) RF chokes shorted /4 stub (2)stub stub (2)(2) Impedance transformer - /4 stub (2)(1) stub (2) 50 stub (2)lines stub (2)(5) SUBSTRATE MATERIAL HYBRID COUPLER HYBRID COUPLER SCHOTTKY DIODES LOW-PASS FILTER SMA CONNECTORS PRINTED LINE CONSIDERATIONS RF chokes

Quarter-wave impedance transformer Mitered stub (2)corners. Grounding Meandered to minimize the size of the circuit substrate. Tapered the line where it met component pads. Mitered corners. 50 stub (2)interconnects Maximized line width vs. performance to gain production margin (narrow linewidths more difficult to produce). Need to stub is well grounded brought it close to the edge where a strap can

be installed. Added stub (2)ground stub (2)to stub (2)the stub (2)top stub (2)of stub (2)the stub (2)circuit stub (2)board stub (2)wherever stub (2)possible stub (2)to stub (2)reduce stub (2)impedance. Will stub (2)connect stub (2)top stub (2)& stub (2)and stub (2)bottom stub (2)planes stub (2)with stub (2)wires stub (2)and stub (2)straps. stub (2) stub (2)This stub (2)would stub (2)normally stub (2)be stub (2) accomplished stub (2)with stub (2)plated stub (2)vias. Component stub (2)pads Used stub (2)manufacturers stub (2)recommendations. DESIGN DECISIONS MADE / TRADEOFFS RF Splitting Looked at 90, 180 degree couplers. 90-degree easier to implement. Surface mount standard product readily available from Anaren (distribution) & inexpensive. Greatly simplifies the circuit board. Filtering

Removed BPFs in the RF and LO paths Not readily available or too expensive. Not enough time to design lumped-element realizations. Not critical to performance or meeting specification. LPF (IF path) Maximally flat desire good pass-band flatness and suppress the 1.0 GHz LO leakage. Lumped-element distributed too large, components are inexpensive. 5th order (see design and simulation later). Purchase coils, use DLI capacitors. DECISIONS / TRADE-OFFS

RF Chokes Started with radial transformers (/2 open stubs). Moved to /4 shorted stubs (high impedance). Diodes Did not simulate very well higher conversion loss & poor flatness. Avago Schottky series pair diodes selected. Using a pair improve diode match (to each other). Also purchased Infineon pair as a risk reduction (same package so they can

be installed on existing circuit). Substrate Material Rogers RO4003 selected. Low-cost microwave material. FR-4 could potentially be utilized risk item (higher loss, more r variation) 32-mil thickness selected to provide some rigidity for the soldered components and the connectors. 1-oz copper used due to soldering, particularly the connectors fear that 0.5 oz would tear or lift during hand-solder operations. AWR MODEL SIMULATION RESULTS SIMULATION RESULTS SIMULATION RESULTS RF = 0.8 GHz

RF = 1.15 GHz RF = 1.0 GHz RF = 0.9 GHz SIMULATION RESULTS CIRCUIT LAYOUT SMA Conn Launch (RF In) /4 shorted stub /4 transformer Orange areas are circuit traces Green areas are ground Backside is all ground Coupler Diode Pair SMA Conn

Launch (LO In) Circuit is 2.0 x 2.5 x 0.032 RO4003 1oz. Copper both sides LPF /4 shorted stub Will install edgewrapped straps from top-bottom surfaces. SMA Conn Launch (IF Out) Will incorporate drilled holes and ground interconnect wires from top-bottom surfaces. FABRICATION & ASSEMBLY Circuit to be fabricated at Anaren using LPKF prototype circuit

router. Approximately 4 circuits will be produced initially more if needed. Will require some hand de-burring of copper. Inside corners will not be 90-degrees, there will be a small radius base on the diameter of the end-mill used. The small gap for the LPF shunt capacitors may have to be hand cut with a scalpel. Circuit assembly will be performed by Anaren Assembly Technician Basic soldering of components using manufacturers recommendations where possible (recommended footprints were incorporated in the design/layout). Manual soldering of ground connections from top to bottom copper layers using:

Edge-wraps Wires through drilled holes. TESTING Testing to be performed at Anaren Test Equipment Required

Conversion Loss Isolations (RF-IF, LO-IF) VSWRs (RF, LO, IF ports) 1-dB Compression Spurious Response Spectrum Analyzer RF Signal Generators (2) Power Meter SMA Male 50 stub (2)Terminations stub (2)(2) Test stub (2)Cables stub (2)(3) Adapters stub (2)(as stub (2)required) Sample stub (2)Size One stub (2)piece stub (2)initially Additional stub (2)(1-3) stub (2)after ACTION ITEMS & NOTES FROM REVIEW Action Items & Notes from SBM Design Review Held 5/3/2012 Note No. Description

Owner Due Date Status Comments/Updates 1 Question on LO and RF connector spacing - enough for getti ng connectors on. Jared 5/4/2012 Closed Spacing was determined to be sufficient as is 2 Possibility of Breadboarding the LPF by itself.

Jared See Below Closed This can be easily done if needed 3 Potential for NF testing Jared See Below Open 4 Question on measuring LO to RF Isolation Jared 5/3/2012

Closed 5 Bandpass Filtering on RF & LO ports Jared 5/3/2012 Closed Not required, but desired. It was agreed that LO-RF isolation will be poor due to the configuration and did not need to be measured. This would be added to the production version - it was leftout due to difficulty in obtaining in time (beyond scope of project). 6 An RF Bypass capacitor between the diodes and the impedance transformer should improve conversion loss performance.

Jared See Below Closed See Below. Owner Due Date Status Comments/Updates Action Description Item No. 1 Evaluate adding RF Bypass capacitor Jared 5/5/2012

Closed 2 Breadboard the LPF Jared TBD Open 3 Investigate possibility of adding NF testing. Jared 5/9/2012 Open A 2.7 pF capacitor was added to the AWR model and the performance did improve. This was added to the design.

Will do if required. Need to check with Anaren if equipment is available.

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