The Short Story What is a Short Story? A short story is : a brief work of fiction (not true) where the main character faces a conflict that is worked out in the plot of the story Character
Character Types of Characters: a person, animal or anything else the author uses in a story, poem or play. Round - fully developed, has many different character traits Flat - stereotyped, one-dimensional, few traits Static Does not change
Dynamic Changes as a result of the story's events Characterization How the author develops the characters, especially the main character. what the character does or says what others say of and to the character Direct characterization The author directly states what the characters
personality is like. (Example: cruel, kind) Indirect characterization Showing a characters personality through his/her actions, thoughts, feelings, words, appearance or other characters observations or reactions Protagonist Main character of the story the most important character changes and grows because of
experiences in the story hero Antagonist A major character who opposes the protagonist the antagonist does not change villain Types of antagonists: people
nature society Conflict A struggle between two opposing forces Types Internal takes place in a characters own mind Man vs. Him(Her)self
External a character struggles against an outside force Man vs. Man Man vs. Nature Man vs. Society What is the Plot? Plot: Series of related events that make up a story. Exposition/Introduction
Section that introduces characters, the setting, and conflicts. Setting - TAP Time can be general or specific Atmosphere the feeling atmosphere creates Place can be general or specific Rising Action Consists of a series of complications. These occur when the main characters
take action to resolve their problems and are met with further problems: Fear Hostility Threatening situation Climax The turning point in the story: the high point of interest and suspense Climax Rising Action or Complications
Falling Action Resolution Exposition/ Introduction Falling Action All events following the climax or turning point in the story. These events are a result of the action taken at the climax. Resolution
Conclusion The end of the central conflict: it shows how the situation turns out and ties up loose ends Point of View View point from which the writer tells the story. First person - One of the characters is actually telling the story using the pronoun
I Third person - Centers on one characters thoughts and actions. (he, she) Omniscient - All knowing narrator. Can center on the thoughts any actions of any and all characters. Theme The central message or insight into life revealed through a literary work.
The main idea of the story Stated themes are directly presented in a story Implied themes must be inferred by considering all the elements of a story and asking what message about life is conveyed Foreshadowing Clues the writer puts in the story to give the reader a hint of what is to come. Symbolism
An object, person, or event that stands for something more than itself. Example: Scales function is to weigh things, but they are also a symbol of our justice system. Can you think of any more? Lets learn the elements of short stories through Cinderella
Setting - The story takes place a long time ago in a land ruled by a king and a queen. Characters in Cinderella The main characters are Cinderella, the stepsisters, their mother, the fairy godmother, and the prince.
Protagonist: Cinderella Antagonist: the stepsisters, their mother Theme in Cinderella The theme of Cinderella is implied. The reader can infer the message that if you are in a bad situation, you should do the best
that you can. In the end, things will work out for you. Conflict in Cinderella Cinderella wants to go to the ball, but her stepsisters prevent her from going. The conflict is external Cinderella versus the stepsisters and their mother.
Man vs. Man The 5 Stages of Plot in Cinderella Cinderella lives with her stepsisters and their mother. They make her wear rags and do all the hard work.
An invitation to the ball arrives. Introduction Climax A fairy godmother appears and provides Cinderella with clothes, a
coach, and footman. Cinderella dances with the prince, but leaves hurriedly at midnight; losing a slipper Cinderella goes to the ball. The stepsister s go to the
ball. Rising Action The stepsisters try to force their feet into the slipper. It fits Cinderella! The prince says he will marry the woman whom the slipper fits.
Falling Action Cinderella and the prince marry. They live happily ever after. Resolutio n
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