Scientific Revolution & Enlightenment

Scientific Revolution & Enlightenment

Scientific Revolution & Enlightenment Will Cronin and Hannah Sauer Scientific Revolution Important people of the Sci. Copernicus - mathematician that developed a model of the universe,

Rev. where the earth rotated around the sun (heliocentric) Galileo - mathematician and astronomer formulated law of inertia and experimental method. He also supported the copernican theory. Newton- father of calculus and developed modern physics who developed the law of universal gravitation Effects of the Sci. Rev.

Pros: Improvements in techniques in navigation, facilitated overseas trade, and helped enrich leading merchants Improved way of obtaining knowledge - scientific method Creation of an international scientific community; scholars could engage in discourse about theories and ideas, thus expanding knowledge. Cons: The field of science became competitive at the time Introduced scientific method - highly critical; differed from old way of obtaining information

Few practical and applied developments for the betterment of society People became less religious (scientific proof) People began to question society and doctrines Which led to the Enlightenment... Enlightenment Intellectual movement during the 17th and 18th centuries Methods of natural science could and should be used to examine and

understand all aspects of life People began to question their government and request their rights People and Important Ideas Descartes I Think, Therefore I am belief in ones own existence John Locke natural rights: Life liberty and property

Locke believed in Hobbes Humans were naturally bad; put security over freedoms and people should give obedience to a person or group empowered to decide every social and/or political issue Montesquieu Believed in a separation of powers, specifically of church and state Why do we care? Led to the belief in educating people

Led to the Industrial Revolution Slavery was now seen by most as barbaric Because of the Enlightenment, people began to question their government and demand equal rights This essentially ignited the French Revolution French Revolution 1775-1815

Origins began as a revolt of the aristocracy wanted to break down Louis XIVs Absolutist system French inspired by the American Revolution after Enlightenment, desired liberty and equality liberty = human rights, government with sovereign people, representation, written constitution, self-determination, freedom of property equality = rights and civil liberties, equality before law, no rich advantage, equality of

opportunity, Careers Open to Talent The Estates General and the 3rd Estate Estates General -- an old feudal system had 3 estates: clergy -- 1st nobility/aristocracy -- 2nd all others -- 3rd

1st and 2nd estates had majority of votes but only made up about 2-3% of the population 3rd estate was mainly middle class and the bourgeoisie aristocracy and bourgeoisie overlapped by 1789 (old money vs. new money) Classical Liberalism supports a system of laws Estates General National Assembly (June 1789) had power to frame a constitution The Declaration of the Rights of Man and the

Citizen took away 3rd estates voice Robespierre and the Reign of Terror Maximilien Robespierre -- Jacobin that formed his own sect invented the guillotine executed 40,000 enemies of the nation (mainly consisted of 3rd

estate) followers turned against him on July 28, 1794 death by own invention Napoleon overthrew Directory in 1799 became French emperor in 1804 failed to defeat Great Britain and exiled to Elba in 1814 gained power again in 1815 (Hundred Days)

defeated at Waterloo and brought to exile in St. Helena, where he died Napoleonic Code -- granted equality of all male citizens before the law; granted absolute security of wealth and private property Bank of France -- served interests of both state and financial oligarchy Congress of Vienna formed after Napoleons first defeat to reestablish old order Prussia, Russia, Great Britain, France, Austria, Papal States

wanted to ensure peace restored Bourbon monarchy to France Louis XVIII leader of CoV was Klemens von Metternich (Austrian foreign minister) reshaped borders in Europe middle class revolted beginning of continent-wide European diplomacy

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