School Prayer - University of Utah

School Prayer - University of Utah

McCollum v. Bd of Education (1948) Champaign Board of Education offered voluntary religious education classes for public school students from grades four to nine. Weekly 30- and 45-minute classes were led by clergy or lay teachers in public school classrooms during school hours. McCollum v. Bd of Education (1948) the state's compulsory education system

assists the program of religious instruction carried on by separate religious sects. Pupils compelled by law to go to school for secular education are released in part from their legal duty upon the condition that they attend the religious classes. Engel v. Vitale (1962) NY State Regents adopted prayer for all students: Almighty God, we acknowledge

our dependence upon Thee, and we beg Thy blessings upon us, our parents, our teachers, and our Country. Abington v. Schemp (1963) Pennsylvania Law required that: [a]t least ten verses from the Holy Bible [be] read, without comment, at the opening of each public school on each school day. The Schempps, Unitarians, testified that religious doctrines purveyed by a literal

reading of the Bible "were contrary to the religious beliefs which they held and to their familial teaching" Abington v. Schemp (1963) The State claimed that the purposes of Bible reading included: the promotion of moral values, the contradiction to the materialistic trends of our times, the perpetuation of our institutions and the teaching of literature. The Court found: even if its purpose is not

strictly religious, it is sought to be accomplished through readings, without comment, from the Bible. Early State Supreme Courts Striking Down Public School Prayer Ohio (1869) Wisconsin (1890) Nebraska (1902) Illinois (1910) Louisiana (1915) Washington State (1918)

Effect of Decisions by Region 1968 Prayer Bible Before Reading Decision Before Decision Either Teachers Districts Exercise Ceased Ceased

After Decisions East 83% 62% 11% 87%

93% South 87% 80% 64% 26%

21% Midwest 28% 38% 21% 45% 54%

West 14% 5% 64% 62% 14%

Use graph from McGuire paper Non-compliance vs. Population Density and Evangelicals Wallace v. Jaffree (1985): 3 Statutes 1978: authorized 1-minute period of silence "for meditation 1981: authorized a period of silence "for meditation or voluntary prayer 1982: authorized teachers to lead

"willing students" in prayer to "Almighty God . . . the Creator and Supreme Judge of the world." Wallace v. Jaffree (1985): 3 Statutes 1978: 1-minute period of silence "for meditation stood as constitutional protection of student choice 1981: silence "for meditation or voluntary prayer invalidated as state is endorsing prayer 1982: struck down by appellate courts

as clear state endorsement Santa Fe v. Doe (2000) District allowed an elected student chaplain to offer Christian (Baptist) prayers over public address system at football games. Challenged by Mormon & Catholic parents District court allowed so long as prayers were nonsectarian and nonproselytizing Santa Fe v. Doe (2000)

Struck down prayers because delivered "on school property, at schoolsponsored events, over the school's public address system, by a speaker representing the student body, under the supervision of school faculty, and pursuant to a school policy that explicitly and implicitly encourages public prayer" Scopes Monkey Trial (1925) William Jennings Bryan: "if evolution wins, Christianity

goes." Clarence Darrow: "Scopes isn't on trial; civilization is on trial." Scopes Monkey Trial (1925) Darrow asked the jury to find Scopes guilty so that he could appeal the case and overturn law. Jury does so. Conviction is overturned by TN Sup CT because of technical problem with assessment of $100 fine. Keeps ban on evolution in place but not

enforced. Epperson v. Arkansas (1967) Arkansas' law selects from the body of knowledge a particular segment which it proscribes for the sole reason that it is deemed to conflict with a particular religious doctrine; that is, with a particular interpretation of the Book of Genesis by a particular religious group.

Edwards v. Aguillard (1987) "Balanced treatment" means "providing whatever information and instruction in both creation and evolution models the classroom teacher determines is necessary and appropriate to provide insight into both theories in view of the textbooks and other instructional materials available for use in his classroom." Scalia in Edwards

"Perhaps what the Louisiana Legislature has done is unconstitutional because there is no such [scientific]evidence [of creation], and the scheme they have established will amount to no more than a presentation of the Book of Genesis. But we cannot say that on the evidence before us in this summary judgment context. Kitzmiller v. Dover (PA) Area School District (2005)

Conservative Republican federal District Judge found: The overwhelming evidence at trial established that I[ntelligent] D[esign] is a religious view, a mere re-labeling of creationism, and not a scientific theory. Kitzmiller v. Dover Area S. D. - Standards Because Darwin's Theory is a theory, it is still being tested as new evidence is

discovered. The Theory is not a fact. Gaps in the Theory exist for which there is no evidence. A theory is defined as a welltested explanation that unifies a broad range of observations. Intelligent design is an explanation of the origin of life that differs from Darwin's view.

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • Paul Sava - Colorado School of Mines

    Paul Sava - Colorado School of Mines

    Paul Sava: WE seismic imaging SEP 113 SEG 2003 EAGE2003 SEP114 Wave-equation MVA by inversion of differential image perturbations Wave-equation MVA: Born, Rytov and beyond Velocity Sava & Biondi SEP 113 SEG 2003 Multiple attenuation in the image space Multiples...
  • Matter Unit

    Matter Unit

    KMT. The more energy the particles have, the fastertheymove and further apartthey get. KMT Explains States of Matter. Solid. Liquid. Gas. Particles are so tightly packed together they cannot move freely. They canonly vibrate.
  • Communication and Optimal Resolution (CANDOR) Toolkit Module 6:

    Communication and Optimal Resolution (CANDOR) Toolkit Module 6:

    Second-victims can have specific concerns and symptoms following a CANDOR event. For example, second-victims might worry about the patient, themselves, their peers, and the future. The second-victim is often concerned about whether or not the patient and family are okay...
  • Welcome to PEP Mason Anatomy & Physiology Class Mrs. Morales

    Welcome to PEP Mason Anatomy & Physiology Class Mrs. Morales

    Snap Circuits Laboratory. In lieu of too much discussion on Chapter 13 this week, we will take class time to have assigned groups assemble some basic circuits on Monday, then each group will present their circuits to classmates.
  • Rabies Surveillance in the United States During 2011

    Rabies Surveillance in the United States During 2011

    Raccoon rabies virus variant is present in the eastern United States, Skunk rabies in the Central United States and California, Fox rabies in Texas, Arizona, and Alaska, and Mongoose rabies in Puerto Rico. *Potential Host Shift Events * Graph of...
  • Early American Literature - South Shore High School

    Early American Literature - South Shore High School

    Critical Literary Perspectives . Lenses for Reading Literature. The writing of every time period reflects its unique historical context. The subject matter (topic), attitude, style of writing, and form (genre) of writing combine to create a literary movement.
  • Marketing Essentials

    Marketing Essentials

    Preliminary Activities Feature-Benefit Selling Section 13.1 Customer Referrals Cold Canvassing Employer Sales Leads Prospecting Techniques referral A recommendation of another person who might buy the product being sold. endless-chain method endless-chain method When salespeople ask previous customers for names of...
  • Electoral Systems Revision

    Electoral Systems Revision

    What is Additional Member system (AMS)? 11. ... when a party runs on a complex manifesto with many aspects as it is unclear which parts of the manifesto the people are voting for. E.g. did the people vote Lib Dem...