Russia, China, and the Birth of Communism

Russia, China, and the Birth of Communism

Russian Imperialism and Communism Outcome: The Russian Revolution The Russian Revolution 1. Setting the Stage: Ripe for Revolution a. Cruel and oppressive rule of 19th Century czars caused social unrest

b. 1881, reformist Czar Alexander II assassinated by upset revolutionaries The Russian Revolution 2. Czars Resist Change a. Alexander III halted all reforms and clung to autocracy (total control)

b. Anyone who questioned the czar, worshipped outside of Russian Orthodox Church, or spoke another language was labeled dangerous c. Alexander censored published materials, teachers, and students d. Forbade minority languages, targeted the Jews e. Died of kidney inflammation in 1894, son

Nicholas II takes over Czar nicholas II The Russian Revolution 3. Russia Industrializes a. Number of factories doubled between 1863 and 1900; still behind Europe

b. Industrialization brought new problems: high taxes, bad working conditions, low wages, & child labor c. Trade unions outlawed; unhappy workers organized strikes d. Marxist (those who followed ideas of Karl Marx) revolutionaries believed: i. The industrial class would overthrow the czar and form a dictatorship of the proletariat ii. Proletariat: the workers

iii. The proletariat would rule the country e. Marxists split into two groups: Mensheviks and Bolsheviks The Russian Revolution 4. Three Crises Show Czars Weaknesses a. Russo-Japanese War (Cost lives & $$$) b. Bloody Sunday: The Revolution of 1905 (Failed revolution)

c. World War I (Cost lives & $$$) The March Revolution The Russian Revolution 5. The March Revolution a. Prices were wildly inflated

b. Food and supplies were dwindling c. March of 1917, women textile workers in Petrograd led a city-wide strike d. In the next 5 days, shortages of bread and fuel led to riots. e. 200,000 workers swarmed the streets shouting Down with the autocracy! f. Rasputin, holy man who gained political power was poisoned and shot

g. This uprising led Czar Nicholas II to abdicate his throne The Russian Revolution 5. The March Revolution h. Nicholas and his family were executed by revolutionaries a year later

The Russian Revolution 5. The March Revolution i. A provisional government (temporary government) was set up j. Socialist revolutionaries formed soviets

k. Soviets: local councils consisting of workers, peasants, and soldiers Rasputin Vladimir Lenin The Russian Revolution

6. The Bolshevik Revolution a. Vladimir Lenin returns to Russia from exile (via Germany) b. The provisional government topples after Bolshevik Red Guards storm Winter Palace in Petrograd (St. Petersburg) The Russian Revolution 6. The Bolshevik Revolution (continued) c. The Bolsheviks are in power within days behind Lenin

d. Lenin gave control of factories to the workers (Communal ownership) e. Lenin distributes all farmland to the peasants (Communal ownership)

f. Civil War erupts in Russia (Bolsheviks vs. those loyal to Czar regime) The Russian Revolution 6. The Bolshevik Revolution (continued)

g. Lenin restores order and in 1922 Russia is renamed the Soviet Union h. Bolsheviks rename themselves the Communists Communism 7 Communism a. A political and economic system of organization b. In theory, property is owned by the community and all

citizens share in the common wealth according to their need c. Difficult to achieve; ideally a classless society d. Karl Marx wrote the Communist Manifest e. Marx felt the proletariat (workers) would revolt due to population and poor conditions f. The Revolution would end with communal ownership of wealth. g. Lenin disagreed with Marx: He felt the state needed to be

run by a single party (dictatorship)

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