CHAPTER 24 Nationalism Italian Unification Nationalism: desire for national independence 1815: Italian Peninsula was divided into several independent city-states w/ various governments Language and trade barriers prevented unity Mazzini and Young Italy: sought to transform Italy into a sovereign nation-state
Began forcing out Austrian influence Pope Pius IX withdrew; other city-states followed Count Cavour (advisor in Sardinia): Gained French support by joining the Crimean War Napoleon III helped force Austrians out of Italy Garibaldi (military leader in Sicily):
1830: forced into exile went to S. America Learned to use guerilla warfare (hit and run tactics) 1860: returned to Sicily and gained control Surrendered to Cavour 1861: Italy was one nation with the exception of Rome & Venetia (Victor Emmanuel II) 1871: Victor Emmanuel II moved the capital from Florence to Rome creating complete unity German Unification
Last great European nation to unify 1815: 39 German States 1871: 1 German nation 1834 a Zollverein (economic union) was formed Struggle for power between Austria and Prussia Prussia = most dominate German state (econ. & mil.) Otto von Bismarck was dominate prime minister
Three Wars: War against Denmark: Germans forced Danes out of controversial territories (Schleswig & Holstein) Seven Weeks War: Bismarck declared war on Austria defeated them in seven weeks Franco-Prussian War: Bismarck doctored a telegram from Prussias King to Napoleon III Formation of an Empire:
Jan. 18, 1871 William I became Kaiser Bismarck became chancellor (chief minister) 25 German states combined to form a new nation Bismarcks Realm Concerns: The Center Party (Catholic German political party)
1870: Doctrine of papal infallibility May Laws, limited Catholic power in Germany Pope Pius IX broke diplomatic ties w/ Bismarck Bismarck tried to make peace (in his losing battle) Industrial Growth Deep pit Coal Mining offered abundant cheap fuel Rapid urbanization (rural farmers moved to cities) Workers and Socialism:
Bismarck and the Socialists: Ferdinand Lassalle (Univ. German Workers Assoc.) Advocated political action to bring change 1875: UGWA merged with the Social Dem. Party 1878: Legislature passed Anti-Socialist Bill banned all Socialist meetings and publications Tried to gain workers support with State Health Aid 1890: Socialist Dem. Party gained a majority in the
legislature The Fall of Bismarck: 1890: upset w/ the new king, Bismarck offered his resignation which was readily accepted by William II Russias Empire Autocracy: govt. in which one person rules with absolute authority Russian Czars:
Alexander I: granted a constitution to Poland, then lost interest in social/political improvement Nicholas I: gave secret police unlimited power Alexander II: emancipated serfs to industrialize Terror and Reaction: Michael Bakunin advocated anarchy (no govt.) Nihilists: rejected all Russian traditions 1881: Alexander II was assassinated Alexander III: promoted Russification (policy of intolerance and persecution of non-Russians)
Revolution of 1905: Russian Marxists: Nicholas II declared himself an autocrat Was easily influenced by his wife Mensheviks: develop an industrial state with a large working class in order to revolt Bolsheviks (Lenin): small party of professional revolutionaries could use force to gain reform More Upheaval:
Jan. 22, 1905: soldiers opened fire on 200,000 peaceful protestors in St. Petersburg Nicholas II allowed for a duma (legislature) October Manifesto: made Soviet Union a const. mon. Crime is a product of social excess. Give us the child for 8 years and it will be a Bolshevik forever.
It is true that liberty is precious; so precious that it must be carefully rationed. No amount of political freedom will satisfy the hungry masses. One man with a gun can control 100 without one. Without revolutionary theory there can be no revolutionary movement. Austria-Hungarys Decline
Lacked political/geographic unity Revolution of 1848: Metternich opposed/crushed rev. activity Frances Rev. of 1848 spread to Austria; fostered ideas of nationalism and freedoms Lost influence over Italian & German provinces under Francis Joseph (conservative king) Dual Monarchy (The Ausgleich):
1867: divided Austria-Hungary into separate empires Shared a monarch, but had different const./parl. Austria (industrial); Hungary (agricultural) Powder Keg in the Balkans 1875: nationalists in Serbia, Bulgaria, & Romania demanded independence from Turkey The Congress of Berlin (1877): Russia went to war on behalf of the Slavic peoples The Treaty of Stefano (1878): created a large, Russian controlled Bulgarian state
Led to jingoism (extreme patriotism) Balkan Conflict: Balkan states began to fight amongst themselves European nations allied with small nations to help give aid CHAPTER 25 The Age of Imperialism The Russian Empire in Decline
Russia a massive, multi-cultural empire Only approximately half speak Russian, observe Russian Orthodox Christianity Romanov Tsars rule autocratic empire Powerful class of nobles exempt from taxation, military duty Exploitative serfdom The Russian empire, 1801-1914 The Crimean War, 18531856
Russian expansion into Caucasus in larger attempt to establish control over weakening Ottoman empire Threatens to upset balance of power, Europeans become involved Russia driven back from Crimea in humiliating defeat Demonstration of Russian weakness in the face of western technology, strategy Russian Industrialization
Alexander II emancipates the serfs (1861) Peasants uprooted from rural lifestyle to work for low wage jobs Does not alleviate poverty/hunger Construction of Trans-Siberian Railroad Socialist and anarchist propaganda spread rampantly
Peoples Will Movement assassinates Alexander II Pogroms begin against Eastern European Jews Revolution of 1905 Humiliating defeat of Nicholas II and Russians in the Russo-Japanese War exposes government weaknesses Growing Social Discontent boils over in growing Marxist movements Russian soldiers open fire on protestors sparking panic and threatened revolt by the masses
Nicholas II allows for representative government (Duma) October Manifesto is issued Western Trade in China China had restricted the majority of Western trade since the 1750s The only allowed currency was silver bullion British East India Company began to trade (smuggle) opium from India into
China By the 1830s, the Chinese began enforce the ban and the British engaged in military action. Opium War ends with the Unequal Treaties ceding Hong Kong to Britain. Taiping Rebellion Population growth of 50%; cultivated land remains stagnate
Call for the destruction of Qing Dynasty Taiping Platform led by Hong Xiuquan Abolition of private property Creation of communal wealth Prohibition of footbinding, concubinage Free public education, simplification of written Chinese, mass literacy Prohibition of sexual relations among followers (including married couples) In the end Hong commits suicide and 100,000 Taipings killed The Self-Strengthening Movement (1860-95) High point in 1860s-1870s Slogan Chinese learning at the base,
Western learning for use Blend of Chinese cultural traditions with European industrial technology Shipyards, railroads, academies Change to Chinese economy and society superficial Strong influence from Confucian scholars and leaders proves to strong for the movement to succeed. The Boxer Rebellion Society of Righteous and Harmonious
Fists (Boxers), anti-foreign militia units 1899 fight to rid China of foreign devils Misled to believe European weapons would not harm them, 140,000 Boxers besiege European embassies in 1900 Crushed by coalition of European forces China forced to accept stationing of foreign troops Foreign Pressure in Japan
Europeans, Americans attempting to establish relations U.S. in particular look for Pacific ports merchants Japan only allowed Dutch presence in Nagasaki 1853 Matthew Perry sails gunship up to Edo (Tokyo), forces Japanese to open port Sparks conservative Japanese reaction against Shogun, rally around Emperor in Kyoto leading to Meiji Restoration
Meiji Restoration allows for western learning Establishment of Constitutional Government The Idea of Imperialism Term dates from mid19th c. In popular discourse by 1880s Military imperialism Later, economic & cultural varieties US imperialism
Motivation for Imperialism Military Political Economic European capitalism Religious Demographic
criminal populations Dissident populations Manifest Destiny Discovery of natural resources Exploitation of cheap labor Expansion of markets The White Mans Burden Rudyard Kipling (1864-1936)
Raised in India, native Hindi speaker Boarding school in England, then return to India (1882) French: mission civilisatrice Geopolitical Considerations Strategic footholds Waterways Supply stations Imperial rivalries Domestic Political Considerations
Crises of industrialism Pressure from nascent Socialism Imperial policies distract proletariat from domestic politics Cecil Rhodes: imperialism alternative to civil war Technology and Imperialism Transportation
Steamships Railroads Infrastructure Suez Canal (1859-1869) Panama Canal (1904-1914) Weaponry muzzle-loading muskets Mid-century: breech-loading rifles Reduce reloading time
1880s: Maxim gun, 11 rounds per second The Military Advantage Battle of Omdurman (near Khartom on Nile), 1898 Five hours of fighting British: six gunboats, twenty machine guns, 368 killed Sudanese: 11,000 killed
Communications Correspondence 1830 Britain-India: 2 years After Suez Canal, 2 weeks Telegraph 1870s, development of submarine cables Britain-India: 5 hours
The Jewel of the British Crown: India East India Company Monopoly on India trade Original permission from Mughal emperors Mughal empire declines after death of Aurangzeb, 1707 Home of a Wealthy Family in Calcutta British Conquest
Protection of economic interests through political conquest British and Indian troops (sepoys) British Colonial Soldiers Sepoy Revolt, 1857 Enfield rifles Cartridges in wax paper greased with animal fat Sepoys capture garrison
Problem for Hindus: beef Problem for Muslims: pork 60 soldiers, 180 civilian males massacred (after surrender) Two weeks later, 375 women and children murdered British retake fort, hang rebels British Rule in India Establish Direct Rule
Organization of agriculture Pre-empts East India Company Established civil service staffed by English Low-level Indian civil servants Crops: tea, coffee, opium Stamp of British culture on Indian environment Veneer on poor Muslim-Hindu relations Imperialism in Southeast
Asia Spanish: Philippines Dutch: Indonesia (Dutch East Indies) British establish presence from 1820s Conflict with kings of Burma (Myanmar) 1820s, established colonial authority by 1880s Thomas Stamford Raffles founds Singapore for trade in Strait of Melaka Base of British colonization in Malaysia, 1870s1880s
French: Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, 18591893 Encouraged conversion to Christianity The Scramble for Africa (1875-1900) French, Portugese, Belgians, and English competing for the dark continent Britain establishes strong presence in Egypt, Rhodesia
Suez Canal Rhodesian gold. diamonds A New Africa Implications for justification of imperialist rule European exploration of rivers (Nile, Niger, Congo) Information on interior of Africa King Leopold II of Belgium starts Congo Free State, commercial ventures
One of the most brutal mistreatment of the Africans The Berlin Conference (18841885) Fourteen European nations, United States No African states present Rules of colonization: any European state can take unoccupied territory after informing other European powers European firepower dominates Africa
Exceptions: Ethiopia fights off Italy (1896); Liberia a dependency of the US Systems of Colonial Rule Concessionary companies Direct Rule Private companies get large tracts of land to exploit natural resources
Companies get freedom to tax, recruit labor: horrible abuses Profit margin minimal civilizing mission - Chronic shortage of European personnel; language and cultural barriers French West Africa: 3600 Euro rule 9 million Africans Indirect Rule use of indigenous institutions US Imperialism President James Monroe warns Europeans not to engage in imperialism in western hemisphere (1823)
The Monroe Doctrine: all Americas a U.S. Protectorate 1867 purchased Alaska from Russia 1875 established protectorate over Hawaii Locals overthrow queen in 1893, persuade US to acquire islands in 1898 Spanish-Cuban-American War (1898-1899) US declares war in Spain after battleship Maine sunk in Havana harbor, 1898
Takes possession of Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam, Philippines US intervenes in other Caribbean, Central American lands, occupies Dominican Repubilc, Nicaragua, Honduras, Haiti Filipinos revolt against Spanish rule, later against US rule (led by E. Aguinaldo) The Panama Canal President Theodore Roosevelt (in office
1901-1909) supports insurrection against Colombia (1903) Rebels win, establish state of Panama U.S. gains territory to build canal, Panama Canal Zone Roosevelt Corollary of Monroe Doctrine U.S. right to intervene in domestic affairs of other nations if U.S. investments threatened Early Japanese Expansion
Resentment over Unequal Treaties of 1860s 1870s colonized northern region: Hokkaido, Kurile islands, southern Okinawa and Ryukyu islands as well 1876 Japanese purchase warships from Britian, dominate Korea Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895) over Korea results in Japanese victory Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905) also ends in Japanese victory Economic Legacies of Imperialism Colonized states encouraged to exploit natural resources rather than build manufacturing centers Encouraged dependency on imperial
power for manufactured goods made from native raw product Indian cotton Introduction of new crops Tea in Ceylon Colonial Conflict Thousands of insurrections against colonial rule
Tanganyika Maji Maji Rebellion against Germans (1905-1906) Rebels sprinkle selves with magic water (maji maji) as protection against modern weapons; 75000 killed Scientific Racism developed Count Joseph Arthurd de Gobineau (1816-1882) Combines with theories of Charles Darwin (18091882) to form pernicious doctrine of Social Darwinism
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