Psychology - cpb-us-e1.wpmucdn.com

Psychology - cpb-us-e1.wpmucdn.com

Forgetting & Memory Construction Module 19 Which is the Right Penny? (From Nickerson & Adams, 1979) Which is the Right Penny? (From Nickerson & Adams, 1979) Forgetting:

Encoding Failure Encoding Failures 1. 2. people fail to encode info because: unimportant to them not necessary to know the info

the brains ability to encode decreases as we age - parts of brain active during encoding respond more slowly Forgetting: Storage Failure Two Types of Storage Failure Decay: info that is not rehearsed

disappears as time passes Displacement: info being held in STM is pushed out by newly arriving info; most likely occurs when the capacity limit of STM has been reached (7 chunks) The Forgetting Curve (Adapted from Ebbinghaus, 1885)

What trend do you notice in Ebbinghaus forgetting curve? Forgetting: Retrieval Failure Interference when one memory gets in the way of remembering another

examples: remembering last years locker combination but not this years calling your current girlfriends house and asking to speak

to your former girlfriend you can remember your current phone number but not your previous phone numbers The Brain Documentary: Amnesia Clive Wearing Motivated Forgetting motivated forgetting having a reason to forget;

scientific evidence supports this idea repression Sigmund Freud - psychoanalysis move anxiety-producing memories to unconscious means of protecting oneself from painful memories not well-supported by research; stressful incidents are actually more likely to be encoded

Memory Construction How is false information incorporated into constructed memories? Spend 30 seconds memorizing as many of the following words and phrases as possible:

Textbook All-nighter Quiz Flashcards Review

Lecture Vocabulary GPA Memorize Class project

Outline Essay Notes Semester exam

Due date Grading scale Assignment Unit test Handouts Tutor Chapter guide Now See

how many of the words you can write down. Was the word lecture on the list? Was the word study on the list? Was the word grading scale on the list? Was the word school on the list? Elizabeth Loftus

researches memory construction found that subjects memories vary based on the wording of questions

demonstrated the misinformation effect Misinformation Effect incorporating misleading information into ones memory of an event

affects eyewitness testimony

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